Index of the Plates of Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius (Ort)-number


List of plates, used in the various editions of Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, with dates of their appearance and use, and with estimates of approximate number of prints.

vdB
number
Koeman/Meurer
number
vdKrogt New
Atlantes number
Name,
abbreviated
period
of usage
copies
printed
number
of states
0(1)   31:1A Title page 1570L-1613D 4180 3
0(2)   31:1B Title page 1571D-1574F  725 1
0(3)   31:1C Title page 1579L-1641S 2700 5
0(4)     Portrait Ortelius 1579L-1641S 6425 2
1 1 0001:31A Typus Orbis 1570L-1584L 3600 6
2 112/II 0001:31B Typus Orbis 1588S  750 3
3 113 0001:31C Typus Orbis 1587F-1612S 4000 3
4 5 1000:31A Europae 1570L-1581F 2725 3
5 110 1000:31B Europae 1584L-1612S 5250 1
6 3 8000:31A Asiae 1570L-1574L 1675 1
7 93/I 8000:31B Asiae 1575L-1612S 6700 1
8 4 8600:31 Africae 1570L-1612S 8175 6
9 2 9000:31A Americae 1570L-1575L 1750 3
10 112/I 9000:31B Americae 1579L-1584L 2025 1
11 114 9000:31C Americae 1587F-1612S 4350 2
11(1)     Americae none none 1
12 124 0600:31 Maris Pacifici 1590LIV-1612S 4050 2
13 72 9510:31 Hispaniae Nova 1579LII-1612S 6675 2
14 73 9520+9610:31 Culican.-Hisp-Cub 1579LII-1612S 6675 5/3
15 103 9820+9440+9540:31 Peruv.-Flor-Guast. 1584LIII-1612S 5425 2/2/2
16 6 5000:31A Angliae,Scot,Hib. 1570L-1612L 8175 3
17 148 5000:31B Angliae & Hibern. 1606E-1612S 1250 2
18 54 5800:31 Scotiae 1573GI-1612S 7300 3
19 55 5100:31A Angliae 1573GI-1602L 5950 3
20 143 5100:31B Anglia Regnum 1603L  425 1
21 56 5500:31 Cambriae Typus 1573GI-1612S 7200 3
22 57 5900:31A Hiberniae 1573GI-1603L 6375 3
23 149 5900:31B Irlandiae 1606E-1612S 1325 3
24 95 6350:31 Açores 1584LIII-1612S 5425 3
25 7 6000:31 Regni Hispaniae 1570L-1612S 8175 4
26 8 6300:31 Portugalliae 1570L-1612L 8175 5
28 74 6112:31 Hispalens. Conv. 1579LII-1612S 6675 3
29   6155:31A Valentiae some 1592L 1400 2
30 107 6155:31B Valentiae 1584LIII-1612S 4325 1
31 99 6058+6020+6115:31 Carpetaniae-Guip. 1584LIII-1612S 5425 1/1/1
32 145 6045:31 Reyno de Galizia 1598D-1612S 1300 1
33 144 6250:31 Cataloniae Princ. 1603L-1612S  950 3
34 9 4000:31A Galliae 1570L-1603L 5925 3
35 135/III 4000:31B Gallia never regularly included, very few 1
36 150 4000:31C Gallia 1606E-1612S 1225 2
37 127 4430+4001:31 Cenom.-Neus. 1595LV-1612S 3425 1/2
38 75 4500:31 Pictonum 1579LII-1612S 6675 3
39 10 4360+4587:31 Biturigum-Limaniae 1570L-1612S 8175 1/1
40 76 4440:31 Anjou 1579LII-1612S 6575 3
41 136 4300:31 Isle de France 1598F-1612S 2575 2
42 137 4380:31 Touraine 1598F-1612S 2425 1
43 138 4370+4560:31A Blaisois-Lemovicum 1598F-1612S 2750 1/1
44 11 4120+4160:31A Caletensium-Verom. 1570L-1598D 5350 3/2
45 139 4120+4160:31B Caletensium-Verom. 1598F-1612S 2825 2/1
46 77 4100:31 Picardiae 1579LII-1612S 6725 5
47 128 4700:31 Provinciae 1595LV-1612S 3425 2
48 12 4652+4760:31A Galliae Narb.-Sab. 1570L-1581F 2950 1/1
49 108 4652+4760+4740 Gall.Narb-Sab-Ven. 1584LIII-1612S 5150 2/2
50 122 4250:31 Lotharingiae 1590LIV-1612S 4050 2
51 78 4880:31A Burgundiae 1579LII-1612L 5475 2
52 116 4880:31B Burgundia Comitat. 1589G & 1603L  650 1
53 142 4870+4880:31B Burgundiae D.-Com. 1602S-1612S  350 2/2
54 96 4870:31A Burgundiae Infer. 1584LIII-1612S 5050 1
55 152 4985:31 Lacus Lemani 1608I-1612S  925 1
56 13 2000:31A Germaniae 1570L-1602G 6650 2
57 147 2000:31B Deutschlanndt 1603L-1612S 1775 3
58 14 3000:31A Germaniae Infer. 1570L-1606E 7250 2
59 153 3000:31B Inferioris German. 1608I-1612S  925 4
60 79 3380:31 Lutzemburgensis 1579LII-1612S 6725 5
61 15 3700:31A Gelriae, Cliviae 1570L-1612S 7525 4
62   3700:31B Gelriae Cliviae 1579L-1592L  650 1
63 100 3360:31 Leodiensis 1584LIII-1612S 5425 4
65 16 3100:31A Brabantiae 1570L-1592L 4825 4
66 126 3100:31B Brabantiae 1592L-1612S 3875 3
67 151 3170:31 Limburgensis Duc. 1606E-1612S 1225 1
68 80 3340:31 Namurcum 1579LII-1612S 6725 3
69 53/I 3320:31A Hannoniae not regularly included 1300 2
70 81 3320:31B Hannoniae 1579LII-1581F 3900 3
71 111 3320:31C Hannoniae 1584L-1612S 2000 2
72 82 3300:31A Artois 1579LII-1584F; 1595L-1612S 5650 4
73 115 3300:31B Artesia 1587F-1592L 1075 1
75 17 3200:31A Flandriae 1570L-1575L 1750 2
76 93/II 3200:31B Flandria 1579L-1589G 2675 3
77 125 3200:31C Flandria 1592L-1612S 3750 4
78 18 3600:31 Zelandicarum 1570L-1612S 8175 11
79 19 3400:31 Hollandiae Catth. 1570L-1612S 8175 4
80 20 3900:31 Oost & West Friesl. 1570L-1612S 8175 6
81 83 3910:31 Frisia Occident. 1579LII-1612S 6725 4
82 84 2310:31A Frisiae Orientalis 1579LII-1592L 3250 1
83 135/I 2310:31B Frisiae Orientalis 1595L-1612S 3175 2
84 21 1500:31A Daniae Regnum 1570L-1581F 3000 1
85 101a/b 1500+2320:31B Daniae-Oldenburg 1584LIII-1612S 2600 1/1
86 130a/b 1500+1550:31C Daniae-Cimbriae 1595LV-1612S 3000 1/2
87   1660+2192:31B Holsat.-Rugiae 1598F-1612S 3625 1/2
88 22 1680+1720:31A Thietmarsiae-Prus. 1570L-1581F 3000 1/1
89 22A/109B 1680+2192:31B Thietm.-Rugiae 1584LIII-1612S 4425 2/2
90 22A/101B 1680+2320:31C Thietm.-Oldenburg 1598F-1612S 2675 2/1
91 85 2300:31 Westphaliae 1579LII-1612S 6725 3
92 86 2450+1660:31A Hassiae-Holsatiae 1579LII-1592L 4150 2/3
93 23 2100:31 Saxoniae-Misn-Th. 1570L-1612S 8175 2
94 58 2150:31 Mansfeldiae 1573GI-1612S 7200 3
95 129a/b 2570+2450:31 Henneberg.-Hass. 1595LV-1612S 2900 1/1
96 59a/b 2120+2110:31 Turingiae-Misniae 1573GI-1612S 7300 3/4
97 118 2170:31 Brandenburgensis 1590LIV-1612S 4050 1
98 87a/b 2466+2460:31 Bughaviae-Waldecc. 1579LII-1612S 6625 2/3
99 123a/b 2262+2580:31 Braunswicensis-Nor 1590LIV-1612S 4050 2/3
100 24a/b 2550+2580:31 Franconiae-Osn. 1570L-1612S 8075 2/3
101 25 2850:31 Regni Bohemiae 1570L-1612S 8175 2
102 26 2900:31A Silesiae 1570L-1592L 4825 3
103 135/II 2900:31B Silesiae 1595L-1612S 3350 2
104 60 2870:31 Moraviae 1573GI-1612S 7300 2
105 27 2710:31A Austriae 1570L-1592L 4675 3
106 140 2710:31B Austriae 1595L-1612S 3500 1
107 28 2720:31A Salisburgensis 1570L-1595L 4825 1
108 135/V 2720:31B Salisburgensis 1595L-1612S 3250 2
109 29 2660:31A Typus Vindelicae 1570L-1573G 1400 1
110 70 2660:31B Bavariae 1573LI-1612S 7025 3
111 30a/b 2670+2620:31A Bavariae-Wirtemb. 1570L-1581F 2875 1/1
112 94a/b 2670+2525:31B Bavariae-Argent. 1584LIII-1612S 4475 2/2
113 88 2620:31B Wirtenberg Ducatus 1579LII-1612S 6225 3
114 61a/b 4915+2650:31 Basiliensis-Suev. 1573GI-1612S 7275 3/3
115 31 4900:31 Helvetiae 1570L-1612S 8175 2
116 62a/b 2780+7170:31 Rhetiae-Goritiae 1573GI-1612S 6675 3/2
117 32 7000:31A Italiae 1570L-1581F 2935 2
118 112 7000:31B Italiae 1584L-1612S 5240 1
119 63 7171:31B Fori Iulii 1573GI-1612S 6900 2
120 89 7111:31 Veronae Urbis 1579LII-1612S 6225 1
121 64a/b 7120+7450:31A Patavini-Apuliae 1573GI-1592L 4075 1/1
122 131a/b 7120+7160:31B Patavini-Tarvisini 1595LV-1612S 2900 1/1
123 119 7140:31 Bresciano 1590LIV-1612S 3950 2
124 154a/b 7380+7113:31 Bononiense-Vicent. 1608I-1612S  925 1/1
125 33 7020:31 Ducatus Mediolan. 1570L-1612S 8175 5
126 155 7080:31 Reipubli. Genuens. 1608I-1612S  925 1
127 90 7030:31 Agri Cremonensis 1579LII-1612S 6575 1
128 34 7050:31 Pedemontanae 1570L-1612S 8175 1
129 35a/b/c 7026+7310+7171:31 Como-Romae-Friuli 1570L-1612S 8175 3/2/2
130 36 7200:31A Thusciae 1570L-1612S 8175 3
131 132 7205:31 Florentini 1595LV-1612S 3425 1
132 156 7250:31 Parmae et Placent. 1608I-1612S  925 4
133 157 7390:31 Ducatus Ferrarien. 1608I-1612S  925 1
134 158 7370:31 Romagna Flaminia 1608I-1612S  925 1
135 159 7360:31 Ducatus Urbini 1608I-1612S  925 1
136 102 7340:31 Perusini Agri 1584LIII-1612S 5475 1
137a/b/c 65a/b/c 7210+7520+7550:31 Senensis-Cors.-Anc 1573GI-1612S 7300 2/2/3
138 117 7430:31 Aprutti 1590LIV-1612S 3950 1
139 37 7400:31 Regni Neapolitani 1570L-1612S 8175 2
140a/b 133a/b 7450+7490:31B Apuliae-Calabriae 1595LV-1612S 2900 1/1
141a-f 38a-f 7500:31 Insularum Aliquot 1570L-1612S 8175 1/2/1/1/1/1
142 120 7550:31 Ischia 1590LIV-1612S 4050 2
143a/b/c 67a-c 2725+7180+7645:31 Carinthiae-Hist-Z. 1573GI-1612S 7200 2/2/2
144 71 7640:31 Illyricum 1573LI-1612S 7025 3
145 41 7601:31 Sclavon-Croat-Car. 1570L-1612S 8175 3
146 40 7800:31 Graeciae 1570L-1612S 8175 4
147a-k 98a-k 7900+7010:31B Candia-Archipelagi 1584LIII-1612S 5425 2/2/2/2/2/2/2/2/2/2/2
148a/b 39a/b 8130+7900:31A Cyprus-Candia 1570L-1581F 2825 2/1
149 66 8130:31B Cypri Insulae 1573GI-1612S 7300 4
150 42 1800:31A Hungariae 1570L-1612S 8175 5
151 91 1800:31B Ungariae Loca 1579LII-1612S 6575 3
152 43 7700:31A Transylvaniae 1570L-1575L 1730 2
153 93/III 7700:31B Transilvania 1575L-1612S 6445 4
154 44 1900:31A Poloniae 1570L-1595L 4925 4
155 135/IV 1900:31B Poloniae Lithuan. 1595L-1612S 3250 2
156 104 1720:31B Prussiae 1584LIII-1595L 2175 1
157 141 1720:31C Prussiae 1598F-1612S 2950 2
158a-c 68a-c 2190+1710+1940:31 Pomeran.-Liv-Osw. 1573GI-1612S 7300 2/3/1
159 105 7602:31 Romaniae 1584LIII-1612S 5325 1
160 45 1200:31 Septentrionalium 1570L-1612S 8175 7
161 121 1250:31 Islandia 1590LIV-1612S 4150 1
162 46 1800:31 Russiae 1570L-1612S 8175 5
163 47 1/67 Tartariae 1570L-1612S 8175 4
164 97 8050:31 Chinae 1584LIII-1612S 5425 3
165 134 8450:31 Iaponiae 1595LV-1612S 3525 2
166 48 8400:31 Indiae Orientalis 1570L-1612S 8175 5
167 49 8200:31 Persici 1570L-1612S 8175 3
168 50 8100:31A Turcici Imperii 1570L-1575L 1850 1
169 92 8100:31B Turcici Imperii 1579L-1612S 6325 2
170 51 8150:31A Palestinae 1570L-1575L 1750 3
171 93 8150:31B Palestinae 1579L-1592L 2775 1
172   8150:31B Palestinae 1595L-1612S 3775 1
173 106 8150:31C Terra Sancta 1584LIII-1612S 5425 2
174 52abc 8110+8650+8630:31 Natoliae-Aegyp-Cr. 1570L-1612S 8175 2/2/2
175 69 8730:31 Presbiteri Iohann. 1573GI-1612S 7300 2
176 53 8610:31 Barbariae et Bil. 1570L-1612S 8175 2
177. 135 8615:31 Fessae et Marocchi 1595LV-1612S 3525 2

Parergon maps

vdB
number
Koeman/Meurer
number
VdKrogt
AN number
Name,
abbreviated
period
of usage
copies
printed
number
of states
             
178(1)   31:2A Parergon title page 1579L(AB) only  500 1
178(2)   31:2B Parergon title page 1584L only  750 1
178(3)   31:2C Parergon title page 1592L-1601L 1325 1
178(4)   31:2D Parergon title page 1603L-1641S 2525 3
179 36P 0810:31 Geographia Sacra 1603L-1624P 2625 1
180 22P 8155H:31 Typus Chorograph. 1590LIV-1624P 4175 2
181 1P 0850H:31 Divi Pauli 1579LII-1624P 7125 3
182 12P 8020H:31A Abrahami Patriar. 1590LIV-1595L  850 2
183 39P/IV 8020H:31B Abrahami Patriar. 1592L-1624P 3425 2
184 42P 0301H:32 Lumen Orientalis 1624P 1025 1
185 43P 0302H:32 Lumen Occidentalis 1624P 1025 1
186 13P 0800H:31 Aevi Veteris Typus 1590LIV-1624P 4275 2
187 2P 1050H:31 Romani Imperii 1579LII-1624P 7325 3
189 26P 1000H:31 Europam Celtic. 1595LV-1624P 3750 1
190 15P 5000H:1:31A Brittanicae Ins(N) 1590LIV-1592L  700 1
191 16P 5000H:2:31A Brittanicae Ins(S) 1590LIV-1592L  700 1
192 34P 5000H:31B Brittanicarum Ins. 1595L-1624P 3675 1
193 20P 6000H:31 Hispaniae Vet. D. 1590LIV-1624P 3550 2
194 18P 4000H:31A Gallia Vetus 1590LIV-1624P 3975 3
196 27P 4000H:31C Galliae Veteris T. 1595LV-1624P 3850 2
197 6P 3000H:31A Belgii Veteris T. 1584LIII-1592L 1675 2
198 33P/I 3000H:31B Belgii Veteris T. 1595L-1624P 3575 1
199 19P 2000H:31A Germaniae Vet. T. 1590LIV-1592L  700 1
200   2000H:31B Germaniae Vet. T. 1595L-1624P 3735 3
201 40P P-HRE/1:32 Ordines Sacri I 1603L-1624P 2525 1
202 41P P-HRE/2:32 Ordines Sacri II 1603L-1624P 2525 2
203 23P 7600H:31 Pannoniae et Ill. 1590LIV-1624P 4175 1
204 9P 7000H:31A Italiae Veteris S. 1584LIII-1592L 1850 2
205   7000H:31B Italiae Veteris S. 1595L-1624P 3500 1
206 21P 7010H:31 Italia Gallica C. 1590LIV-1624P 3550 2
207 11P 7200H:31A Tusciae Antiquae 1584LIII-1592L 1775 3
208   7200H:31B Tusciae Antiquae 1595L-1624P 3475 2
209 28P 7320H:31 Latium 1595LV-1624P 3650 3
210 29P 7400H:31 Graecia Major 1595LV-1624P 3650 2
211 10P 7510H:31 Siciliae Veteris 1584LIII-1624P 5450 6
212 30P 7710H:31 Daciarum Moesiar. 1595LV-1624P 3850 2
213 17P 0350H:31 Pontus Euxinus 1590LIV-1624P 4375 3
214 25P 7760H:31 Thraciae Vet. T. 1590LIV-1624P 4375 2
215 3P 7800H:31 Hellas, Graeciae 1579LII-1624P 7275 2
216 8Pa-j 7500+8130:31 Insular.-Cyprus 1584LIII-1624P 5450 2/1/4/2/1/3/2/3/2/1
217 7Pa-d 7900H:31 Creta-Ins. aliquot 1584LIII-1624P 5450 1/2/3/4
218 14P 8610H:31 Africae Propriae T. 1590LIV-1624P 4375 2
219 4P 8650H:1:31A Aegyptus (North) 1584LIII-1592L 1775 2
220 5P 8650H:2:31A Aegyptus (South) 1584LIII-1592L 1775 1
221 35P 8650H:31B Aegyptus Antiqua 1595L-1624P 3475 1
222 31P 8030H:31 Alexandri Magni 1595LV-1624P 3650 3
223 32P 0311H:31 Aeneae Troiani N. 1595LV-1624P 3650 3
224 37P 0500H:31A Erythraei Rubri M. 1598F-1624P 2725 2
226 38P 0310H:31 Argonautica 1598F-1624P 2725 1
227 44P 0910:1:31 Peutinger.(I,II) 1624P 1225 1
228 45P 0910:2:31 Peutinger.(III,IV) 1624P 1225 1
229 46P 0910:3:31 Peutinger.(V, VI) 1624P 1225 1
230 47P 0910:4:31 Peuting.(VII,VIII) 1624P 1225 1
231 24P P-Tempe:31 Tempe 1590LIV-1624P 4075 2
232 33P P-Daphne:31 Daphne 1595LV-1624P 3250 2
233 39P P-Escorial:31 Scenograph. Escor. 1601L-1624P 2525 3
234   9999:31 Utopia not yet found in an atlas Few 1

Total of all maps (229 plates):  above one million sheets printed.

Some comments on the above plate list of Ortelius Atlas Maps

This survey lists the plates used in the course of the printing history of Ortelius' "Theatrum", including the editions which were issued after his death.

The oldest list of plates, rather incomplete, and ordered more or less chronologically, is given by Hessels (1887) in his work which has the correspondence by and with Ortelius as its main subject. Hessels ends his listing at Ortelius' death.

In 1914, Eduard Brandmayer published his "Bibliographische Untersuchungen ueber Entstehung des Ortelianischen Kartenwerkes". He lists more plates than Hessels does, and also ends his listing in 1598 at Ortelius' death.

The next list, which misses fewer plates than Hessels and Brandmeyer, is that by Bagrow (1928-1930). Like the first, the ordering principle again aims at being chronological, and likewise the list ends with Ortelius' decease in 1598.

The first serious attempt aiming at a complete inventory of plates used for Ortelius' atlas was made by Koeman in his Atlantes Neerlandici (Koeman 1967). The 53 maps occurring in the first edition of the Theatrum were numbered 1 to 53, and every new plate appearing after that, during Ortelius' life usually first appearing in the Additamenta, received a subsequent number. Thus, the numbering was essentially again of a chronological nature. Koeman found 159 (in fact 158, see above) regular plates and 44 Parergon plates (in fact 47, since he counts the 4 Peutinger plates as one number), bringing the total to 205.
This list provided a good starting point, but was faulty in a number of respects. Sometimes, the reworking of a plate was indicated, but as a rule it was not. One plate was entered twice, and a considerable number of plates was still lacking altogether.

Peter Meurer in his "Fontes Cartographici Orteliani" (Meurer 1991), a work primarily aimed at establishing cartographic sources for each Ortelius map, made a new attempt at providing a complete listing of plates. In order to remain compatible with Koeman's list, he inserted newly found plates chronologically into Koeman's list by adding Roman numerals. He reports 10 new regular plates and 4 new Parergon plates, bringing the total to 168 regular atlas plates and 51 Parergon plates. Since one regular plate moves to the Parergon, this brings the total number of plates to 219.

Karrow's study on Ortelius' sources (Karrow 1993) curiously misses quite a few plates reported two years before by Meurer, and like its predecessor and source of inspiration Bagrow, stops in 1598. Again, this work aims primarily at establishing cartographical sources of Ortelius maps, and complements (and sometimes contradicts) the work by Meurer.

My own research, partly based on that by Meurer yielded another 15 hitherto unnoticed "new" regular plates. This brings the total count at 234 plates, which are reported in Van den Broecke (1996). Since that time, one "new"plate has been found. In 2004 I found a copperplate which turned out to be a very close copy of Ort 11, the Americas. Most probably it was never used. Two modern prints were made in an art shop, one for the owner, one for me, which can be seen with some information around it at http://www.orteliusmaps.com/americas-paris

Since the chronology attached to the Koeman/Meurer numbering of the plates could no longer be upheld in the face of new evidence, and since the chronological numbering system results in a list where similar maps are widely apart geographically, preventing easy comparison of similar plates, it was decided to introduce a new system of numbering, which is not chronological, but by area. The order of presentation of areas as presented in the first edition of the Theatrum forms the starting point, and all later maps have been inserted within this order according to area, which results in a list as given above.

In 2003 volume III of the monumental New Atlantes was published by Peter van der Krogt. In the list above, and in the discussion of the individual plates, his numbering for the Ortelius plates is given as well.

Why is it that so many "new" plates, i.e. plates differing from those described by the earlier researchers mentioned above went unnoticed? For one thing because they were only very rarely included in the Theatrum. Examples of such rare maps are Ort 69 Hannonia, which was suppressed for political reasons (see Meurer 1994), Ort 29 Valentiae, which was of inferior engraving quality, Ort 35 Gallia of which less than a handful copies are known, and Ort 234 Utopia, of which only one copy is known, and which has not (yet) been found in an atlas.
Another reason why "new" plates went unnoticed is because they closely resembled their predecessors. Usually, researchers compare plates by putting two atlases next to each other and compare by looking in turn at one map or the other of two resembling maps. This procedure makes it very hard to detect small differences, such as occur between plates Ort 6 and Ort 7 of Asia, plates Ort 9 and Ort 10 of the Americas, plates Ort 75 and Ort 76 of Flanders, plates Ort 170, Ort 171 and Ort 172 of Palestine, plates Ort 204 and Ort 205 of Italiae Veteris Typus, and plates Ort 207 and Ort 208 Tusciae Antiquae. By superimposing loose maps on top of one another, or better still, by making a photocopy on acetate of one map, and moving this around on top of another, small differences can be detected which escape notice when compared in a more global manner.
It cannot be excluded that more of such close pairs as given above will be found, but on the basis of numerous comparisons conducted in the manner just described on many loose Ortelius maps, I do not expect there to be more than very few indeed.

Period of usage is determined by inspecting the occurrence of each plate in each edition of the Theatrum and Additamenta.

Impression rates are based on the editions for which we know how much paper was used and on sales figures by Plantin of not only these editions, but also of editions for which no paper usage is known, as discussed in Van den Broecke (1986). See also Imhof's contribution "Ortelius and the First Atlas" (1998).

For the number of states listed below, the situation is different. There are many new states to report since my book "Ortelius Atlas Maps" appeared in 1996, and I do not expect the present list to be exhaustive. Some plates with a long history of inclusion in the Theatrum had to be recut numerous times because the resulting prints would become too faded in their thin lines (see the sea area in plate Ort 175, Presbiteri Ioannis, to get an impression what happens when a worn plate is not recut). It is highly unlikely that plates would just be recut without any alteration whatever. As noted, I found many new states since 1996, and many were pointed out to me by others. I expect many more states to be found, I encourage researchers and collectors to look for them, and would be happy to hear about their results.


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