Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 202

image of the map

Title: no title. Bottom part of a set of two, the top part of the previous plate, Ort 201, bears the title.
(Top row left:) "Quatuor Comites Imperij" [Four dignitaries of the [Holy Roman] Empire]. (Top row right:) "Quatuor Milites Imperij" [Four soldiers of the [Holy Roman] Empire].(Left row middle:) "Quatuor Liberi Imperij" [Four freemen of the [Holy Roman] Empire].(Right row middle:) "Quatuor Metropoles Imperij" [[Representatives of] four metropoles in the [Holy Roman] Empire]. (Bottom row left:) "Quatuor VillŠ Imperij". [Four [representatives of] four villages in the [Holy Roman] Empire]. (Bottom row right:) "Quatuor Rustici Imperij" [Four farmers of the [Holy Roman ] Empire]. (Bottom left:) "Gerard de Jode. Exc". (Bottom right:) "Anton Wierinx. fe". (Bottom cartouche left has 8 lines of explanatory text:) "Otho III SaxoniŠ Dux, Othonis II filius, a princibus Germanis, Imperator RomŠ dictus, a Gregorio V pontif.[ice] Max.[imo] consanguineo suos Bruno antea | Vocabatur) quem ille pontificem crearŃt, diadema imperiale accepit: Sed cum Saxoniam peteret Imperator, Gregorius pontifex.a Iohanne ponti[fice]: | Vrbe pellitur Quare Otto irarum plenus maximis copijs Italiam ingressus vi Romam capit. Crescentium consulem dissidij authorem cum suis c§pli|cibus punit, Gregoriumque pristinŠ dignitati restituit. Cum verˇ consideraret sapientissimus CŠsar perpet˙o a[e]stuare Gallos et Italos, transfe:|rende imperialis maiestatis cupiditate a Germanis, et inter Germanos quoque propter electionem nonnumquam dissensiones defuisse apud | suos Maiores: tulit cum Gregorio sanctionem vt in posterum sola authoritas eligendi Imperatoris, penes septem GermaniŠ principibus prima|rios remaneret: Erat tum Otto natus annos 28 et propter ingenij pro[m]ptitudinem miraculum mundi dictus: factum hoc asserunt. [a░] salutis nonagen.|tesimo septuagesimo quarto: licet scriptores tempore multum varient, quod lectori manifestu[m] erit ex lectione Historiarum. | De his, consule Munster". [Otto the Third, King of Saxony, son of Otto the Second, appointed as emperor of Rome by the German electors, received from his nephew Pope Gregorius the Fifth (who used to be called Bruno) and whom he had appointed as Pope, the Imperial Crown. But when the emperor visited Saxony, Pope Gregorius was expelled by pope Ioannes from the city [of Rome]. For this reason Otto, who was quite enraged by this, conquered Rome by force after he had invaded Italy with numerous forces. Together with his allies, he punished the perpetrator of the discord, consul Crescentius, and re-instated Gregorius to his former dignity. Since this very prudent emperor was aware that the Gallians and Italians remained indecisive concerning the transfer of appointing Imperial Sovereignty to the Germans, and because there was much dissension among the Germans themselves in their Senate concerning this election, [Otto] together with Gregorius introduced a legal proposal which would lay the authority to choose and appoint a new emperor into the hands of seven prominent lords among the Princes of Germany [forever] to remain there. Otto was 28 years old at that time, and because of his acuity of mind was regarded as a Wonder of the World. It is said that this happened in the year of our Saviour 974, although there is much difference of opinion among the writers about the time when this took place, as can be observed easily when reading history books about it. About this matter, [also] consult MŘnster].
(In the middle we find an exhortation to consult MŘnster's Cosmography on this subject, and at the right 5 lines of text:) "Nomina 4 Comitum et Militum Imperij superius omi▀a, hic | legenda ponimus. | 4 Comites Imperij. | Swartzemburgensis, Clivensis, | CiliŠ, et SabaudiŠ. | 4 Milites Imperij. | Andelato, Meldingensis, | Strongendoch, Frauenberg". [The names of the four dignitaries and soldiers that were omitted above we present here for reading: the four counts of the empire are Schwartzenburg, Cleve, Cilia and Savoye. The four soldiers of the empire are of Andely, Meldingen, Strongendoch and Frauenberg].

Plate size: 377 x 521 mm.
Scale: not applicable.
Identification number: Ort 202 (Koeman/Meurer: 41P, not in Karrow, vdKrogtAN: P-HRE/2:32).

Occurrence in Theatrum editions and page number:

few 1603Lxxxviiij, most xviij (300 copies printed) (text and page number, but not typesetting identical to 1609/1612L/S. Page number at 1/6 from right text edge; last line, left aligned: de re narrationem prŠbere,lectorem ad Munsterum aliosque Germaniae Historiographos remittimus.),
1606Exxxviiij (300 copies printed) (last line, left aligned: in, to the forenamed Sebastian Munster and other Historiographers of Germany, who haue handled this argument more amply.),
1608/1612Ixviij (300 copies printed) (last line, left aligned: proposito il dar ampia notitia di questa materia, rimettiamo il Lettore al Munstero, & ad altri historiografi di Germania.),
1609/1612Sxviij (text in Latin) = 1609L/1612Lxviij (600 copies printed) (text and page number, but not typesetting identical with 1603L; page number at 2/3 of right text edge; last line, left aligned: de re narrationem prŠbere,lectorem ad Munsterum aliosque Germaniae Historiographos remittimus.),
1624ParergonL/1641Sxxij (1025 copies printed) (last line first column first text page: maniŠ Antistites Ecclesiasticos Principes , quos Im- ; last line second column second text page: storiographos remittimus.).

Approximate number of copies printed in Theatrum: 2525.

States: 202.1: as described.
202.2: some time after 1612L and before 1624LParergon, the signature of Gerard de Jode in the left bottom corner was removed.

Cartographic sources: this plate is the second of a pair, made by Gerard de Jode (as is indicated on the first state of this plate). These two plates first appeared in the 1593 edition of the Speculum Orbis Terrarum, and were later acquired by Vrients, who included them in the Theatrum from 1603L onwards. They represent the dignitaries entitled to choose German Emperors, as instituted to end the turmoil and quarrelling that occurred after the death of Charles the Great, by Otto IV and the Pope. This plate shows the officials ranking fourth to sixth level with respect to the German Emperor. Rank four shows 4 counts and 4 barons, rank five 4 free knights and 4 city representatives, rank six 4 village representatives and 4 yeomen. The higher ranks are depicted on the first plate of this pair, Ort 201. The copper plate of this view has been preserved to the present day in the Plantin-Moretus museum in Antwerp.

References: P.H. Meurer: "Abraham Ortelius' Concept and Map of 'Germania'", p. 263-270 in M. van den Broecke, P. van der Krogt and P.H. Meurer (eds.) "Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas", HES Publishers, 1998.

Like the plates, the texts accompanying them in de Jode's 1593 Speculum were almost verbatim taken over by Vrients. The only change in text occurs at the very end, (kindly provided by Martijn Storms of Leiden University Library) and is indicated in my translation below,


Bibliographical sources

Topographical names

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