Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 4

Texts: 2 versions, translated from the 1570(ABC) Latin, 1571 Latin, 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1573(AB) Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579(AB) Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French and 1587 French edition; the scholarly 1570 Latin, 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin and 1580/1589 German editions are presented first; then we present the vernacular 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French & 1587 French version:

{1570L(ABC){4.1. EUROPE

4.2. On what basis EUROPE should be called as it is, and who was the author of this name, nobody has yet found out, unless, says Herodotus in his fourth book, the whole region accepted its name from Europa Tyria. Plinius calls it the nurse of the people who are victorious over all other nations, and the most beautiful of all lands. Thus, it is comparable to Asia and Africa, not for its size, but for its might. It is certain that this part of the world, most plentifully inhabited, for its multitude of nations is inferior to neither of the other continents.
4.3. The North and the Western shores of this continent are washed by the ocean; the South coast is separated from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea. Then Eastwards, are the Aegean sea, now called Archipelago, the Black Sea, named at this time Mar Maggiore, lake Meotis, now termed Mar della Zabacche [sea of Asov], the river Tanais, commonly called Don, and the straights of the main land, which go from the source of this river directly to the North Ocean, separating it from Asia, according to Glareanus. Therefore, it has the shape of a peninsula as can be seen on the map itself. Its capital Rome was once the ruler of the earth.
{1574L{Its regions, as we now call them, are Spain, Gallia, Germany, Italy, Slavonia, Greece, Hungaria, Poland with Lithuania, Moscovia or rather Russia and its peninsula on which Norway, Sweden & Gothland. Of its islands we should first mention England, Ireland, Greenland, [and] Friesland, situated in the Nordic ocean. In the Mediterranean sea one finds Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Candia [Crete], Maiorca, Minorca, Corfu, [and] Negropontus, and further others of less significance, of which one finds the names and locations on the map itself}1574L}.
4.4. This Europe of us, next to the Roman Empire which is held in reverence all over the world, has more than twenty-eight kingdoms, including those fourteen which Damianus ą Goes already counts in Spain alone, steeped in the Christian religion. This will allow one to estimate the worthiness of this region. It is a place extraordinary fruitful, and the weather is very temperate. In all sorts of grain, wines, and in its abundance of wood, it is inferior to none, but comparable to the best of other regions.
4.5. So pleasant, and so beautified are its cities, towns and villages that for the courage of its people and nations, although it may be less in quantity than other continents, yet might well be considered superior to all others, and it has always been well-populated. By all ancient writers, it has been praised highly because of the Macedonian Empire, and the great dominance of the Romans. The praise of that empire one may read in Strabo, who in his third book, and the seven books following it, has described it in the most elegant manner. Also consult other ancient geographers.
4.6. Of more recent writers, Volaterranus, Sebastian Munster, Dominicus Niger, Georgius Rithaymerus, in their geographies have also endeavoured to describe it. But especially Pius the second, Christophorus and Ancelmus Cellę, have done so.
4.7. Various matters about Europe concerning roads, as well as recorded distances, have appeared in such writings as by Cherubinus Stella, Ioannes Herbaceus, and Georgius Meyerus. Something similar has been done by Guilielmus Gratarolus in the end of his book, which is entitled De Regimine iter agentium, [A guide for travellers]}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB) and 1580/1589G editions end here}.

Now the vernacular text of the 1571/73 Dutch, the 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French and 1587 French editions are presented below:

4.9. {1571D{Europe.

4.10. This is the part of the world which we now call [that of] Christianity, although unfortunately the Christian religion there in some places has been eradicated by the tyranny of the Turks. Among the parts of the world it is the least extended one, yet it has always been considered the best. Next to the Holy Catholic Empire, (which empire is still the first of all in dignity and formerly used to be the first in power and reputation), it has more than 28 Christian Kingdoms. The main and most important regions of this Europe (starting in the West, passing through the South and East and ending in the North) are Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Slavonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland with Lithuania, Moscovia or Russia, and the Northern part, once called Scandia, in which you find Norway, Sweden and a part of Denmark.
4.11. The islands belonging to Europe are in the first place the island once called Albion, which is now England and Scotland; [then] Ireland, Friesland, Iceland and Greenland, all located in the large Northern sea. The islands in the Mediterranean are Sicily, Candia [Crete], Corsica, Sardinia, Maiorca, and Minorca, Negroponte, Malta, Corfu, Stalimene, Metelin, Sio and various other smaller islands in the archipelago and other waters.
4.12. On the whole its air is a temperate and wholesome, and therefore fertile land, all in all more densely populated than the other parts of the world, and beset with wonderful cities. Its capital is (and always has been) Rome, known in all times and places.
4.13. Its inhabitants are always, more than all other peoples, of sharp wit and sturdy body, which has caused them to have subjected almost the whole world, at least as far as it was known to them, as became clear for the first time in the Macedonian Empire through Alexander the Great, but after that mainly through the Roman Empire.
4.14. And nowadays [it is prominent] through the {1572/1574F & 1581F only{Catholic}1572/1574F & 1581F only} King of Spain, {not in 1572/1574F, & 1581F{Philippus}not in 1572/1574F & 1581F}, our formidable lord, and the king of Portugal, who together rule the four continents of the world. Thus it seems that the inhabitants of this part of the world are born with the natural gift and aptitude to govern the others}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F and 1587F editions end here}.

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