Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 205

Text, translated from the 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish/Latin & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] editions:

205.1. {1601L{ITALY.

205.2. They who compare the shape of a country to something else say that Italy resembles an oak leaf, as Plinius, Solinus {not in 1602G{and Rutilius}not in 1602G} have done, or an ivy leaf, as Eusthatius [does]. The later writers more truly compare it with a man's leg. One in our time [viz. Bünting] has depicted all of Europe in the form of a maiden, in whose right arm Italy is portrayed. And not without reason, in my opinion, if one considers the nature of the country exactly, and the famous deeds performed there. For even as the strength of the body is mostly shown in the force and ability of this member [that is, the arm,] so this area in the past declared to the world by this arm of what power all of Europe is likely to be.
205.3. That Italy has had various inhabitants, partly barbarians {1602G instead{foreigners}1602G instead}, partly Greeks, is clear from the ancient records in both the Latin and the Greek language. For at first it was inhabited by the aborigines, Siculi, Pelasgi, Arcades, Epei, Troiani, Morgetes, Ausones and Œnotri. And therefore it was called by various different names, such as AVSONIA, ŒNOTRIA after the people and nations possessing it. IANICVLA [it was called] after Janus, SATVRNIA after Saturnus and finally ITALIA {1606E only{(which it still retains)}1606E only} after Italus, their king, {not in 1602G{or, as Varro testifies, after bulls, for the ancient Greeks in those days called bulls [in Greek lettering] italous. And because of that, this country bred and maintained many excellent bulls, [and] it was after them named Italy.
205.4. Or, (as other state, who indulge in poetical fables) because Hercules from Sicilia to this place followed a worthy bull named Italus}not in 1602G}. By the Greeks it was also named HESPERIA, after Hesperus, the son of Atlantis. Or, which pleases others better, after Hesperus the evening star after which in Spain in former times was also called Hesperia {1606E{by the Romans}1606E}, {not in 1606E{hence, Italy is called Hesperia by the Greek, but the Italians reserve this name for Spain}not in 1606E}. Yet, for the sake of distinction, Vergilius {not in 1602G & 1608/1612I{in his first and seventh book of his Æneiads}not in 1602G & 1608/1612I} calls Italy Hesperiam Magnam, {1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{Great Hesperia}1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. But others also called it by other names. For I see that by {not in 1602G{Macrobius}not in 1602G}, {1606E only{Dionysius}1606E only} Halicarnassæus, Marcus Cato, Isaac Tzetzes &c. [it] was called APENINA, ARGESSA, CAMESENA, TYRSENIA, SALEVMBRONA and TAVRINA. Stephanus writes that it was called CHONIA and BRETTIA. A part of it was also by writers of good repute called MAGNA GRÆCIA, {1602G instead, 1606E additionally{Great Greece}1602G instead, 1606E additionally}, after the Greeks who once dwelt there.
205.5. They report, as Ælianus writes, that so many and various nations have lived here, (more than in any other country in the world), because particularly all times and seasons of the year are very mild and moderate. Again, the quality of the soil is excellent, well watered, and very fertile with all manners of fruits. It also has great pastures. [It was] also [praised] because it is traversed by many rivers, and since it has the sea very conveniently all around it, and the sea coast is on all sides open, and provided with various {1606E only{bays, inlets, creeks, and}1606E only} harbours, serving very fittingly as the entertainment and harbour for excellent, tall ships.
205.6. Finally, the extraordinary kindness and humanity of its inhabitants has been an important factor to attract others to settle here. {not in 1602G{The Italians were always, as Julius Firmicus confirms, very famous for their princely courtesy and gentleman-like behaviour}not in 1602G}.
205.7. Æthicus calls this country {not in 1602G{heavenly Italy, and}not in 1602G} the queen of the world. {not in 1602G{Rutilius [calls it] Rerum dominam, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the mistress of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {not in 1606E{Mamertinus calls it the mistress of all people}not in 1602G & 1606E}, Dion Prusæus [calls it] the most blessed country of all Europe. Halicarnasseus says in his first book that for many reasons it is the best country of the whole world. Strabo says that no one may sufficiently express in words the due recommendations of the country, according to its value.
205.8. But I think it not amiss to record the praise of this country by the [following] recommendation of Plinius, with which he concludes that famous work of his which he wrote on the history of nature. In the whole world, he says, under the scope of heaven, Italy is the most beautiful country, and it possesses the sovereignty of all things. It is another queen and mother of the world, for men, women, captains, soldiers, servants, famous arts and occupations, worthy wits and inventions, [it has] a commodious location, wholesomeness and pleasant temperature of the air, easy access to all nations, many safe harbours, kind winds, sufficient good water, pleasant and healthy woods, good hills and mountains, great amounts of deer and [other] harmless wild animals, fertility of its soil, and a multitude of people. Whatever is required and necessary for the maintenance of man and beast is here to be found, and [it is] nowhere better. [It yields] corn, wine, olives, wool, linen and children. Nor did I ever see better horses, {not in 1602G{or [horses] more esteemed at running or [for] horse races, than those bred in our own country}not in 1602G}.
205.9. As regards metals such as gold, silver, copper and iron (as long as they are willing to search for them) it was inferior to none, all of which it still retains. It also yields all manner of liquors of various strength and virtue, together with all sorts of grain and pleasant, wholesome fruits. So far for Plinius. You may add to this, if you please, that which the same author writes in the fifth chapter of his third book. {not in 1602G{Also, that of Polybius in his second book, and that of Varro in the second chapter of his first book on husbandry. [See also] Strabo near the end of his sixth book}not in 1602G}, and finally Vergilius in various places. {not in 1602G{Si factum certa mundum ratione fatemur, Consiliumque Dei machina tanta fuit, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is] If we confess that heaven by heavenly skill was raised, And in the same the massive globe by due proportion praised}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as Rutilius speaks of Italy in his second book}not in 1602G}.
205.10. Octavianus Augustus, emperor of Rome, according to Plinius divided this country into eleven shires. {not in 1602G{Constantinus the Great, according to Rubeus in his second book on the history of Ravenna, [divided it] into seventeen [shires]. Or into eighteen, as I read in the twenty-first chapter of the second book of Diaconus' history of Lombardy}not in 1602G}. Ælianus writes that in his time it was beautified by 1197 {1602G has instead{196}1602G instead} cities. This is the same country which, when word was brought of the uprising of the Gauls when L. Æmilius Paulus and Caius Attilius Regulus were consuls here, by itself, without any foreign aid, and even without the help of those living South of the Po, mustered 80,000 horsemen and 700,000 {1608/1612I has instead{70,000}1608/1612I instead} footmen. {not in 1602G{Polybius says that in the time of Hannibal the trained men of his country numbered 700,000 footmen and 70,000 horsemen}not in 1602G}.
205.11. Plinius claims the following islands to belong to Italy: Sicilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Oglasa {1606E only{(Monte di Christo or Ianuti)}1606E only}, Planaria, Vrgon {1606E only{(Gorgona)}1606E only}, Capraria, Ægilium {1606E only{(Gilio)}1606E only}, Dianium, Mænaria {1606E only{(Melora)}1606E only}, Columbaria, Venaria {1606E only{(Chia or Elba)}1606E only}, {not in 1606E{Æthalia}not in 1606E} Planasia {1606E only{(Planosa)}1606E only}, Astura {1606E only{(Stora)}1606E only}, Palmaria {1606E only{(or Palmarola)}1606E only}, Sinonia, Pontiæ, Pandataria {1606E only{(Palmaia)}1606E only}, Prochyta {1606E only{(Prosida)}1606E only}, Ænaria {1606E only{(or Ischia)}1606E only}, Megaris {1606E only{(Ovo)}1606E only}, Caprea {1606E only{(Capri or Campanella)}1606E only}, Leucothea {1606E only{(Licoso)}1606E only}, Cuniculariæ {1606E only{(Sanguenares or two islands, one called Bizze, the other Speragia)}1606E only}, Herculis {1606E only{insula (Asinaria)}1606E only}, Enosis {1606E only{(S. Pierro)}1606E only}, Ficaria {1606E only{(Serpentaria)}1606E only}, Belerides {1606E only{(Tauro and Vacca)}1606E only}, Callodes, Hera lutra, Leucasia, Pontia {1606E only{(Ponzo)}1606E only}, Iscia, Ithacesiæ {1606E only{(Praca, Braces and Turrecula)}1606E only} and Ulyssis spelunca. To these I add Æoliæ {1606E only{(Merleiæ)}1606E only}, Parthenope {1606E only{(Palmosa or Betente)}1606E only}, Diomedeæ {1606E only{(de Trimite)}1606E only}, Calypso and Dioscoron, together with the Electrides {not in 1606E{and some others}not in 1606E} which I find mentioned and named in Pomponius Mela and Antoninus}1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/S/L, 1619LBertius & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

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