Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 189

Text, translated from the 1595 Latin 5 Add., 1595 Latin, 1597 German 5th Add., 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin/Spanish and 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish editions:

189.1. {1595L5Add{EVROPE.

189.2. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{In dividing the world, various [authors] have placed Africa in the third part}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Some have divided it into no more than two parts, Asia and Europe only, and they make Africa a part of Europe, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{is what Sallustius writes {1608/1612I only{in his fifth book}1608/1612I only}. [And] this is what Saint Paulinus writes in Ausonius {1606E & 1608/1612I only{based on the same opinion of Salustius}1606E & 1608/1612I only}: Europam Asiamque duo vel maxima terræ Membra, quibus Lybiam dubie Sallustius addit, Europæ admixtam: possit quum tertia dici, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is:] Europe and Asia, share the earthly globe between them. Yet, whether Africa should be a part of our Europe or constitutes a part by itself, is a matter which Salustius seems to doubt}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
189.3. But Philostratus, also [as reported in] Isocrates, divides the world into Asia and Europe, as does Isocrates himself, in his Panegyrics. Moreover, in Varroes book De lingua Latina [about the Latin language] you can find these words: As the whole world is divided into heaven and earth, so heaven is divided into [various] quarters, and earth into Asia and Europe. The same author also writes like this in his book on Farming: First, the world was very aptly and naturally divided by Eratosthenes into two parts, [namely] the one towards the South (undoubtedly he means Asia), [and] the other in the North (we call it Europe).
189.4.So do Saint Augustinus in the 16th book of his De Civitate Dei [about the realm of God], Lucanus in his 9th book, and Orosius in the first book}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} {1606E only{of his history, use similar words with the same meaning}1606E only}. Nevertheless the custom has meanwhile prevailed among historiographers and cosmographers who have written either in Latin or in Greek, jointly to divide the globe of the earth into these three parts: Asia, Africa and Europe, the last of which we intend to describe in this place, {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I{not only in the form of a map or chart, [1606E only{like a geographer}1606E only}, but [also] in the present discourse, {1606E only{as a historian}1606E only; not in 1608/1612I}.
189.5. Concerning its shape, it is irregular, as Strabo writes. It is a peninsula or half-island, and not an island, although Silenus, as Ælianus reports, once described it like that to Midas}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. For on all sides, as you may see on the map, it is bound and beaten by the sea, except in the East, where it is joined {1606E only{by a small neck}1606E only} to greater Asia, yet, by what borders they are there separated is something on which the ancient and modern writers do not altogether agree. For those who are more ancient, like Aristoteles, Plato, Herodotus and others who follow their opinion divide Europe from Asia by means of the river Phasis {1606E only{(a river of Colchis}1606E only}, between the Euxine sea, {1606E only{Mar maiore, or Maurothalassa as the Greek call it near Trapezonda. Some maps now call this river Fasso, others Phazzeth.
189.6. The Scythians (as Thevet reports) [call it] Debbassethca, which all amounts to the same, by that isthmos or neckland which one finds between the Mar maiore or Pontus Euxinus just mentioned}1606E only}, and the Caspian sea {1606E only{(Mar de Cachu, the ancients call it}1606E only} Mare Hyrcanum, the Hyrcane sea) was by all old writers in former times considered to be a mere bay or gulf of the Scythian or Northern ocean, as Strabo, Plinius, Mela, Dionysius, Plutarchus (in his life of Alexander {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and in his discussion of the face on the globe of the moon)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} and Iornandes, a later writer, have recorded. Yet all of them were misled. Only Herodotus truly affirms, (as has been confirmed in our days, and found to be true) that this is a sea by itself, having neither in inlet or an outlet, nor being connected to any other sea.
189.7. Dionysius, Arrianus, Diodorus, Polybius, Iornandes and Ptolemæus have divided it from Asia by the river Tanais {1606E only{(Don or Tana, as the Italians now name it)}1606E only} who think that both the course of this river and the Northern land from which it comes are unknown and uncertain. All doubt where to place and locate its bounds, as indeed nobody knew for sure about those places towards the East and the North, as yet undiscovered, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{but only described by them on [the basis of] the faulty reports of others}1597G5Add & 1602G}, as for example the Riphæan, Hyperboræan mountains, {1601L{which are inventions dreamed up by the Greek, as Strabo writes}1601L}. Together with the Alauni montes, here described by Ptolemæus, were not only these mountains, but also no others are to be seen these days, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{but instead only huge and vast woods, great fens and bogs, or large flat plains. {1601L{Orpheus also long ago described [on] this part of the continent, I mean, between Mæotis palus, the fen Mæotis, {1606E only(now called Mar delle Zabacche, and Mar della Tana)}1606E only} and the sea Cronium, a huge [in Greek lettering: aspeton] wood. Similarly Dionysius Afer places here an infinite [in Greek lettering: apeiriton] wood, as he calls it, from where he says that the Tanais or Don originates, which after many windings and turnings at last empties into the fen Mæotis just mentioned.
189.8. Isidorus here places the Riphæan woods from which he claims that the Tanais just mentioned originates}1601L, not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Seneca in the sixth book of his Naturalis clearly asserts that the Danube separates Asia from Europe. What we think of this, we will, {1606E only{God willing}1606E only}, write down in the discussion on the map of Dacia. So far we see that the authors mentioned are in doubt and disagreement among themselves concerning the borders between these two parts of the world. If therefore they consider me to be a suitable arbitrator in this matter, I would, as I hope to the liking of all parties, decide on the controversy like this.
189.9. I would make the bounds [between Europe and Asia] to be the Tanais {1606E only{or the river Don}1606E only}, the straights or narrow piece of mainland between this river and the river Rha {1606E only{(Athel)}1606E only} {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which empties itself into the Caspian sea, the East branch of the same}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} {1606E only{Athel}1606E only}, then from its head to the river Ob, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and then all the way to its mouth into the Northern sea. For [it is] by this mouth, I easily convince myself that antiquity truly believed that the Caspian sea emptied itself into the main ocean}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Because the name of the river Ob is very ancient, it is very likely that the Montes Obij, {1606E only{certain mountains called Obij}1606E only}, are placed in this area by Athenæus, which according to him were by the ancients called montes Riphæi, the Riphæan hills, but in his days montes Alpes, the Alps.
189.10. Again, Iornandes on this continent, not far from here, writes about the Ouim or Obim, a Scythian nation or family. And that these mountains are here in this place, (and not where Ptolemæus and Pomponius Mela have placed them), is confirmed and witnessed by very many men of great credibility and learning in our days. Among these Baro Herberstein in his history of Moscovy is one. Paul Oderborne, in his treatise about the life of Basilides is another. Finally, Antony Wied, on his map of Moscovy may be among them. Now they call it in the vernacular by various different names, but commonly they call it Cingulum mundi, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{the girdle of the world}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as is confirmed by Herberstein just mentioned.
189.11. On a map of these countries published by Mr. Jenkinson, {1606E only{an Englishman}1606E only} who travelled through these parts, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{it is called Zona Orbis, the girdle of the earth}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Moreover, I have for a division of this kind Iornandes and Æthicus on my side, where they say that the Riphæan mountains form the border between Asia and Europe. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Close to these hills, and in this area, are the Montes Hyperborei, not where Ptolemæus places them. And they are the same as the montes Riphæi, Obij and the Alps}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. So much about the borders between Asia and Europe.
189.12. Plinius calls this part of the world The nurse of all nations. Mardonius, as Herodotus reports, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{asserts it to Xerxes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} to be by far the most beautiful of all places of the world, and to be a most excellent and outstanding country, yielding all kinds of fruits and fruit bearing trees, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and those the best of their kind, and to be such that it would be a pity that any king in the world should have anything to do here except for himself}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Varro in his books De re Rustica, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{About husbandry}1606E & 1608/1612I only} writes that it has a more temperate and wholesome soil than Asia. Statius {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in his Achilleidos}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} more than once or twice calls it the mighty province of the world, Maxima terra viris & fœcundissima doctis Vrbibus. Europe, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{for in its multitude of warlike men and deeply learned scholars it far excels [above Asia]}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, is what Manilius writes about it.
189.13. Aristoteles, {1606E only{the prince of philosophers}1606E only}, reports the inhabitants of this part of the world to be a very stout and courageous people. {1601L, not in 1624LParergon/1641S{The same author asserts that all kinds of beasts and cattle here are in their sort greater and stronger than in Asia and Africa}1601L, not in 1624LParergon/1641S}. But about the nature of this country, the manners and customs of its people, let us hear what Strabo, that excellent geographer has to say in his second book {not in 1606E{through his commentator Xylandrus}not in 1606E}: This part is very fertile in [bringing forth] valiant and prudent men. All of it is generally inhabitable, except for a small part {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in the North, bordering on the Hamaxici {1608/1612I has instead{Tartari}1608/1612I instead} who dwell}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} on the Tanais {1606E only{(Don)}1606E only}, Mæotis palus {1606E only{(Mar delle Zabacche)}1606E only} and Borysthenes {1606E only{(Dnjepr or Dnester) which place, because of the extreme cold, is not inhabitable}1606E only}.
189.14. Yet, certain bleak and mountainous places [are] inhabited, although with respect to the nature of the soil, [the fields] are tilled and manured with greater difficulty, but since they are now [inhabited] by good, skillful and industrious farmers, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{those [fields] are also made useful and much improved, which before were scarcely used, and only kept by thieves and outlaws}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. And indeed, the Greeks, when they dwelt upon those rocks and mountains, lived there happily and conveniently, because of their wise behaviour in civil matters, arts, sciences and knowledge about those matters which are by necessity required for the maintenance of mans life.
189.15. In a similar manner the Romans brought many savage and fierce nations under their dominance, [and] settled [here too], I mean, in places which are not very convenient to live in with respect to the nature of the country, either because it was rough and craggy, or lacked harbours, or was too bleak and cold, or for other causes. The Romans taught [the inhabitants] to use merchandise unknown to them, and elevated them from a savage and primitive life to live more civilly and humanely.
189.16. But [in] those parts which are located in a more equal and temperate climate, there all things necessary for the maintenance of man and beast are provided by nature. Now, those people who inhabit and dwell in fertile and rich areas, are maintainers of peace and quietness, while those who have settled in barren and infertile areas are most hardy and brave in war. And so it is, that both are helpful to one another, because one group uses their weapons for the defence of their country, while the other group assists and maintains them by the profits they reap from the earth, by their skills and trades, as also by their learning, wisdom and policy, but conversely they can also do mutual damage to one another, and feel hurt, when one group fails to help the other.
189.17. Yet the situation of the soldier and warlike man is somewhat better, if they are not overcome by a multitude. And the nature of Europe serves very adequately for this purpose, for all of it is characterised by lofty mountains as well as flat plains, so that everywhere the farmers and soldiers, the politicians and martial warriors dwell together, yet in such a manner that the greatest number [consists of] peaceful men, which kind of life they enjoy by the means and labour provided by their captains, first the Greeks, then the Macedonians, and finally the Romans. Therefore, both in times of peace and of war, it is self-sufficient in maintaining and defending itself, for it has plenty of stout soldiers, diligent farmers, and political statesmen.
189.18. It also excels in that it produces reasonably good fruits, such, I mean, as are necessary for the maintenance of mans life, as also in all sorts of metals, for whatever use. [But] spices, sweetly smelling produce and precious stones are brought here from foreign countries. WHOEVER DOES NOT HAVE THOSE THINGS DOES NOT LIVE A WHIT WORSE THAN THOSE THAT DO HAVE THEM. Moreover, [and] this is especially worth noting, they have a wonderful store of cattle, sheep and oxen, and very few dangerous animals. So far the learned Strabo. {1601L{You may read many other things about this Europe, [also] concerning the nature and condition of its people, in the treatise which Hippocrates, {1606E only{the prince of physicians}1606E only}, wrote about its air and waters}1601L}.
189.19. In this Europe also, and nowhere else, does one find Succinum or Electrum {1606E & 1608/1612I only{( Amber we call it}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, the Germans [call it] Glessum), {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{but it is not found in the Eridianus, a river emptying into some Northern sea, as Herodotus falsely reports, nor in the Padus, a river in Italy {1606E only{(Po)}1606E only}, as the poets state in jest, nor on the Electrides, certain illusive islands in the Adriatic sea, as some men of greater credibility and more diligent in their search of the truth, as Plinius says, have seriously thought.
189.20. Nor in Spain, as Æschylus believed, nor in certain rocks at the further end of the gulf of Venice (mare Hadriaticum) as some more sober men have claimed, nor in Liguria, as Sudinus, Methrodotus and Theophrastus would like men to believe, nor in Æthiopia, near Jupiter Ammons temple, nor in Scythia, as Philemon imagined, {1608/1612I only{nor in some rivers, as Dion Prusæus thinks}1608/1612I} nor in Britain, as Sotacus thinks, nor on the Glessariæ, islands in the German ocean, as Plinius claims, nor in Bannonia or Baltia, (a certain island), as Timæus has it, nor in a certain river, as Dion Prusæus claims, but [it is indeed found] near the neckland or peninsula Hæstarum in the bay of {1606E only{Pautzkerwicke and Frisch-haff}1606E only} (Clylipenus)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} in the Baltic or East sea, {1606E only{not far from Danzig, in Pomerel or Spruse}1606E only}, where it is found (a thing totally unknown to the ancients) {1606E only{for the great profit and enrichment of the people who live here, and not in any other place in the world}1606E only}.
189.21. In the same Europe there are many excellent and stately cities, among which the most famous of all times are Rome and Constantinople, (which afterwards was called New-Rome) {1606E only{and nowadays London, Venice and Paris}1606E only}. The rivers of the greatest importance are the Rhine, Isther or Danube {1606E only{and the Thames}1606E only}. The more notable woods are Arduenna {1606E only{in Gallia, 500 miles in length, reaching from the river Rhine to Tournai in France}1606E only}, and Hercynia {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Schwarzwald}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} {1606E only{in Germany, 40 days of travelling long, as Pomponius writes, and nine days travelling wide, as Cæsar reports in his Commentaries}1606E only}. A greater wood, or more extended, is not mentioned in history. So much about Europe.
189.22. But from where Europa obtained its name and was so called, or who first gave it that name, as I think Herodotus said, there is no man under heaven who knows that for certain or who can guess it with any probability, except that one might think that it is called like that after Europa Tyria. But why it should have been named after her, I am fully ignorant, and I persuade myself and truly believe that no man in the world knows for sure. All men know well enough that she, as we read in the fabulous stories of the poets, was forcibly taken from Phœnicia, a country in Asia, and carried from there to Cyprus or, as others write, to the island of Creta {1606E only{(Candy)}1606E only}. {1601L, not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{There, as Eusebius writes in his Chronicle, Asterius, the king of Creta took her as his wife, [and] she bore him [the children] Minoes, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon}1601L, not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
189.23. From there she went, not to Europe, but to Africa {1606E instead{ instead{Asia}1606E instead}, as Herodotus reports. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{But what is that [compared] to Europe, this part of the world?}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} It might be easier to believe that it was named after Europus, who, as we can read in Trogus Pompeius, once possessed a large kingdom in this area, which I also see confirmed by Eustathius [writing] in Lycophron, who claims this Europus to be the son of a certain Himerus.
189.24. Pausanias says that a certain Europa was king of Sicyonia, {1606E only{a province of the Pelopponesus in Greece}1606E only}. In his Chronicle Eusebius claims that he lived {1606E only{more than 3550 years ago, about 1950 years before the birth of Christ}1606E only}, which makes him the equal [in time] of the patriarch Abraham. {1601L{There are some, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Festus writes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, who think that [Europa] is named as it is because of the beauty and excellence of its land}1601L}. {1606E only{These [stories], we are sure, are uncertain fables. May we therefore not think that, like Phrat came from Euphrates, and Koft from Ægyptus (as we have shown before), that [likewise] one has formed Europa from Ripath (the son of Gomer, Japhets son, to whom this part of the world was assigned right after the confusion of Babel. Surely, the name Riphat shows itself clearly in Riphæis montibus, the Riphean hills, as well as in Riphæo fluvio, now called the river Ob, [also] in Ripe, a city on the Peloponnesus, in Rhiphatæis, the people of Paphlagonia, as Josephus writes}1606E only}.
189.25. Ptolemæus, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in the second book of his Quadripartite}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} in my opinion is much closer to the truth when he writes that it [Europe] was once called by the common name of CELTICA, after the first people that inhabited it. For there is almost no province in this whole area [of Europe] in which in former times the CELTÆ did not live. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{For in Spain towards the West and beyond Hercules pillars live the Celtæ as Herodotus affirms. Similarly, around the river Bætis {1608/1612I only{or Guadalquivir}1608/1612I only}, as Strabo says, the Celtici Præsamarci live in the province of Luca, and others call it Nerij {1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S only{in Tarracona}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S only} as Plinius says.
189.26. Dion and Xiphilinus show that the Cantabri and Astures are the same as the Celts. Plinius mentions the city of Celtica in the province of Hispalensis. {1601L{Antoninus}1601L}{1606E instead{Antonius}1606E instead} has the Celti, as also Cantapromontorium the same as Cantabrum promontorium}, near Artabri{1606E only{which is now called Cabo de finis terre}1606E}. What geographer or historian is there among the ancients that has not mentioned the Celtibri {not in 1606E{in Spain?}not in 1606E} In France there were the Celtæ and the Celtogalatæ, and those in Britain come from there. That this island obtained its first inhabitants from there, lying so near to it, is an opinion shared by many, and very probable. That the Germans & Gauls were commonly called Celtæ is something that all historiographers jointly agree on, and indeed, Dion {1608/1612I instead{Diodorus}1608/1612I instead} says that the Celtæ lived on either side of the river Rhine. The Celtæ [also] lived in Gallia Cisalpina {1606E only(Lombardy)}1606E only} or Italy, as Appianus writes. And also near the Ionian sea, (that is, the Adriatic [sea]), which is also said by Strabo.
189.27. Silius Italicus places them around the river Eridianus {1606E & 1608/1612I only{(Po)}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. In Epirus [too] there once lived Celtæ, as Antonius Liberalis has written. Stephanus places them near mount Hæmus, Arrianus near the mouth of the river Danube, and Strabo in Moesia. The same author writes that the Celtæ are mixed with the Illyrij and Tracians. He also places them upon the river Borysthenes. Moreover, Aristoteles in his book De mundo joins the Celtæ to the Scythians. Here also Strabo and Plutarchus place their Celtoscythæ. {1601L{In Plutarchus' life of Camillus I read that the Galati (whom he claims to have descended from the Celtæ), after passing the Northern sea came to the Riphæan mountains}1601L}.
189.28. Again from the Strabo mentioned I learn that the people living Northwards were in his time called Celtæ, which also their ancient language, which is called the Celtic or German tongue, shows sufficiently to this day, [as] it is the same (only differing a bit in dialect) from that which is used on the islands near to these places, such as Iceland, Greenland, Friesland and others in this Germanic ocean.
189.29. {not in 1608/1612I{Plutarchus writes in [his] Marius that Celtica begins at the outmost sea (that is, the Atlantic sea) and from there stretches itself out far to the North, and from there unto the fen Mæotis}not in 1608/1612I}, {1606E only{(Mare delle Zabacche)}1606E only}. Pomponius Mela calls the Cassiterides (which elsewhere we have proved to belong to Great Britain, or to belong to those named Brittannicæ) the Celtic Islands. What else is this, I pray you, but plain confirmation that THE CELTÆ POSSESSED ALL OF EUROPE? This is indeed the same as what Ephorus in Strabo noted so many years ago, when, as he was dividing the whole world into four parts, he said that that part which is towards the East is inhabited by the Indians; that which is in the South, by the Æthiopians, the Northern parts by the Scythians, and the West by the Celtæ.
189.30. The scholiast Apollonius calls the Adriatic sea Mare Celticum, the Celtic sea. And Lycophron mentions Celtos, a certain pool at the mouth of the river Ister {1608/1612I instead{Danube}1608/1612I instead}. {1601L{He also places Leuce, an island in Mar maiore (Pontus Euxinus) at the mouth of the river Danube}1601L}. May we therefore not properly, as they call those who inhabit Asia Asians, and those who dwell in Africa Africans, call these who live in Celtica [call] Celtics? He who, from all the ancient stories written either in Greek or Latin, has not gathered that the Celtæ are the Germans, let him have recourse to the 22th chapter of Hadrianus Junius' Batavia, and I have no doubt that [such a person], having carefully weighed the many sound arguments and ample testimonies of ancient, serious writers, shall be satisfied and swear to [support] our opinion.
189.31. If not, then let him listen to the Dutchmen, and he shall hear them call one another in their informal communication Kelt. The French also, or Gauls, I call a German nation. {1606E only{And I can prove with sound arguments, if it were a matter pertaining to our purpose, that}1606E only} the German or Dutch tongue is the ancient language of the Celtæ, and the same as they have hitherto used in all places and [which] is [still] spoken, except in some places where the power of the Romans prevailed to such an extent that they banished it and established their own there instead. It is therefore likely that the etymology and reasons for derivation of the word Europe, [a word] unknown to the old writers, is to be sought and found in no other language but the one that was mostly spoken in this part of the world [that is, Celtic]. That inhabitants of a country should take over the name of their own native soil from strangers is so absurd and hard to believe, that nothing more foolish or opposed to the truth can be invented or devised}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
189.32. Wherefore we think it good, concerning this matter, here to write down the judgment of Goropius Becanus, {1606E only{our countryman}1606E only}, who thinks it [Europe] to be so named not after a woman {1606E only{(who probably never existed or came here [anyway])}1606E only} but à latitudine vivendi, {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{after the size of its prospect}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only} (as he says), namely because (I cite his own words from the 9th book of his Origines) it does not only look towards Asia on the East and South, to Africa on the South and West, but also to the New-found-world beyond the Hyperborei on the West and North. Neither shall any man convince me that Europe had its name from Greece or the Greek language, noting that it was first inhabited by the Cimbers {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{(Cimmerij)}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, {1606E only{descended from Gomer, the elder brother)}1606E only} {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{before it was possessed by the Greeks {1606E only{(Iones, derived from Iawan, a younger brother, & the 4th son of Japhet)}1606E only} we make a diphthong by placing the fifth vowel of the Romans before the second, which neither the Romans nor the Greek permit}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
189.33. Therefore, if it happened at any time that they would change the words in which this occurred, for We they put Eu, turning it around. Therefore our people say Verop, not Europ, by which they mean a worthy company of men, for Wer {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(a monosyllable pronounced as a diphthong)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} means lofty, great, excellent, & that which is best in every kind of thing, which notwithstanding some write as ur, without a diphthong, but with a long vowel. Therefore, from Terves they formed Tereus, likewise from Werop {1606E only{the Romans and Greeks have made}1606E only} Europe, so named after the excellence of the inhabitants, which far surpasses all other men in the world. For Hop, as we have shown before, means a company or multitude of men. {1606E, 1608/1612I & 1624LParergon/1641S only{More about this word you may see in his 8th book. So far from his works that have appeared in print}1606E, 1608/1612I & 1624LParergon/1641S only}.
189.34. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{That which [now] follows has been taken from a book which he has written by hand for the second edition,{1624LP/1641S{which has not yet appeared}1624LP/1641S}. But considering [the matter], he says, and comparing this name with that, as I read the Holy Script, another reason, far more excellent and better, has come to my mind. We see that Japhet had been promised a growth and extension of his posterity, or, as some interpret the word, [more] joy and gladness than he enjoyed before, once Christ had redeemed us by his death {1606E only{and precious blood (which blessing agrees with this part of the world, rather than with any other part of it, and therefore all other countries generally call Europe THE KINGDOM OF THE CHRISTIANS and the Europeans are called by the Turks and Arabs GIAVVR, that is, Christians)}1606E only}. E therefore means a lawful contract and marriage. VR [means] excellent, and HOP [means] hope. As a consequence Europe means The excellent hope of a lawful marriage, which is proper to this part of the world which Noah gave to Japhet his son to live in. For although the posterity of Sem was by Abraham for many years wedded to God, yet finally he put it away and separated it from him. But the wedlock by which God, through Christ, has wedded his church to Europe shall never be dissolved, so that Europe may most properly be said to be Japhets portion. But about this word we will speak further in our [map of] Francica. So far Goropius.
189.35. I have very willingly communicated this to the courteous reader, leaving it to the censure of the learned to be judged. Yet I know that these things have been scoffed at by a certain man, learned but ignorant about this [Celtic] tongue, and therefore of less sound judgement as regards this argument}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. There are some who think that this Europe was in the holy Script called IAPETIA}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1624L Parergon/1641S end here}. {1601L{So much for Europe, to which, before I take leave altogether, I will add from Herodotus' Polymnia the words of Mardonius to king Darius spoken about this area. That it is a country most excellent and beautiful, having all kinds of excellent fruitful trees, and those the best of their kind, and [a country that is] such that it were a pity if anyone except only a king should rule it}1601L, 1603L, 1606E & 1609/1612L/S end here}.
189.36. {1608/1612I only{To the reports just mentioned about Europe as quoted by the author, Filippo [Pigafetta] as translator into the vernacular adds that Ortelius has no appreciation for the river Po, which by Vergilius is called the the king of all rivers, and by Strabo the main river of Europe, next to the Danube. Pigafetta just mentioned has written an entire book about the sources of this river Po, after having made a splendid journey to study these sources personally, supported by the present most serene duke of Savoy.}1608/1612I only}.

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