Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 194

Text, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add., 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin/Spanish & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish editions [but text in Latin]:

194.1. {1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S only{IVLIVS}1601L, 1603L, 1606E & 1624LParergon only} {1590L4Add{CÆSARS GALLIA. {1606E only{That is, FRANCE, as it stood in Iulius Cæsar's time}1606E only}.

194.2. This is how I name this map, for it is only Julius Cæsar's, that is, depicted and drawn only [based] on that which he has published in his Commentaries. We have not added one word or any passage from any other author. Neither have we, to our knowledge, omitted any place mentioned by him in his Commentaries. This much I thought useful to warn you for, gentle reader, lest you would try to find on this map those things which other authors have written about Gallia.
194.3. About the nature of this country and the people inhabiting it, I will not in the manner I otherwise do, add to these words any words from other writers, because everyone can find them in Cæsar for himself, who is a very well known author, and easily at hand. For why should I turn to other authors when this map is only based on him? But instead of that I do not think it amiss to write the text that follows about the Druids, selected from all ancient historians.
194.4. Cæsar in his sixth book on the wars in France has left on record that in France there were two kinds of men held in high esteem above the common sort of people. One of these, he says, were the DRVIDS, the other were the KNIGHTS, (Equites). {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Strabo mentions these three, the Bardi, Vates {1606E{(prophets)}1606E} and Druids, as Lucanus says in these verses: Laudibus in longum VATES dimittitis ævum: | Plurima securi fudistis carmina BARDI: | Et vos barbaricos ritus moremque sinistrum | Sacrorum DRVIDÆ &c. {1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is:] You Vates grave tell long tales about worthy men. For rhymes and verse you careless Bardi also bear the bell. About barbarous rites in divine matters you holy Druids write, &c}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
194.5. Ammianus Marcellinus says the same, but those that Lucanus calls Vates, he calls Eubages. Diodorus Siculus mentions the Bardi & Druids only. But the last sort he calls Saronidæ by another and different name, yet with the same meaning. {not in 1624LP/1641S{They were also called Semnotheos according to Laërtius and Suidas}not in 1624LP/1641S}. Plinius often seems to address them with one name [of] Magi only. {1595L{Lucianus in Hercules Ogmios calls them philosophers}1595L}. So much for the name. Now something about these people themselves}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. The KNIGHTS, (equites) says Cæsar, when the need arises, and any occasion for war presents itself, will all go to warfare. And every one of them, as he is of higher descent or revenues, so he has a greater retinue and number of servants attending on him. Other honour and dignity than this they do not know.
194.6. The BARDI are poets, as Athenæus and Strabo jointly state, and usually sing songs and hymns composed {1595L{to recommend famous and worthy men}1595L} {1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{to honour the gods}1591G4Add & 1602G instead}. They are musical poets, {not in 1606E{says Diodorus}not in 1606E}, who sing songs, accompanied by the harp or another instrument, to praise and recommend some, and to reproach and disgrace others. Festus Pompeius also confirms that these men usually sang ballads composed to praise the valiant deeds of martial men. {not in 1606E{& in French bard mean singer. The same about them writes Marcellinus: The bards have sung about the heroic deeds of strong men with sweet verses, accompanied by the lyre}not in 1606E}. In Strabo I note that these are called Vates {1606E & 1608/1612I only{(prophets)}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, and that they used to offer sacrifices and to study natural philosophy. Ammianus, {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{(who calls them Eubages)}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G} writes thus about them: These men searched deeply into the secrets of nature, and exerted themselves to interpret them.
194.7. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{The learned Petrus Pithœus thinks that all these words Bardi, Vates, Eubages, Semnothei and Saronides are only synonyms of Druids. And since I see what in any of the various writers is attributed to them, agreeing [as they do] about one of the Druids only, (as becomes clear from what follows), I can easily agree with this opinion.
194.8. The DRUIDS therefore, or the Druidæ, (for in reliable authors I find it written in these various ways) were, as Diodorus says, philosophers and priests}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. Cæsar says that their discipline was first invented and established in England, which is what Tacitus also writes and claims to be true in the 14th book of his Annals. And he claims that from there it was transferred to France, and that they who wanted to improve their skills about this, mostly went to school there to be instructed. But let us describe them in Cæsar's own words, for no one has done that more plainly, [and] no man knew them better.
194.9. They are present at divine services, they provide the sacrifices, both public and private, they explain the principles of their religion and demonstrate the use of their ceremonies. To these, great groups of youngsters of all sorts flock from all quarters, to be instructed in all kinds of learning. These men are held in high esteem and are honoured by everyone. For they solve and arbitrate almost all kinds of controversies, both private and public. Whatever wrong has been committed against right and reason, whether it concerns a murder that has been committed, or any quarrel concerning title of inheritance, succession or boundaries of land between neighbour and neighbour, they decide in such controversies. They determine and decide on all the rewards and favours [for those] who have deserved them, and also the punishments for who have done wrong, or have trespassed the law.
194.10. If there is anyone whatsoever, whether it is a private person or a whole multitude or company, who does not agree with their judgment, they will immediately exclude him from their sacrifice ceremonies. This punishment is by them considered to be the most severe that can be inflicted on anyone. They do not go to war, nor do they pay customs and taxes as other men do. They have the privilege to be exempted from going to war, as well as from any other burden or task whatever. For which reason (attracted to them by so many important privileges, liberties and immunities), many of the important people go and join them to be instructed, [while] others are being sent there by their parents and family. There they are said to learn by heart an infinite number of verses, so that some stay in school for at least twenty years before they can attain the high level of knowledge [required].
194.11. They do not consider it lawful to commit those things to writing, whereas in almost all other matters, both private and public business, they use the Greek alphabet. This, it seems to me, they have done for two reasons. Firstly, because they do not want that kind of learning to become common knowledge, and to get into the hands of the vulgar people. Secondly, because they do not want those who learn to rely too much on their books and as a result do not train their memory as much as they ought to. For indeed, it often happens that those who rely too much on the help of their book learn in a more loose and negligent way, and thus make their memory blunt and weak. This is the main thing they press into the students mind, namely that the souls of men are immortal, that they do not die together with the body, but that after death they pass from one [person] to another. And this they consider to be a great inducement (neglecting fear of death) to move their minds to practise virtue and true magnanimity.
194.12. Moreover, they discuss, and teach the young, their students, many things about the stars and their motion, about the size and greatness of the world and earthly globe, about all things under the scope of heaven, and about the might and power of the immortal gods. So far Cæsar. But for your information, we will to this add what other men have written on this subject.
194.13. Pomponius Mela speaks about them like this. These men claim to know about the size of the world and greatness of the earthly globe, [about] the motion of heaven and the stars, {1606E only{both the fixed and planetary [ones]}1606E only}, yes, to know what the gods themselves know and do. They teach the nobility and better sort of men of their nation many things for as long as twenty years, secretly in caves, or thick woods and forests. And one thing, among all the others which they have taught them in secret, is blazed around among the common people, namely, to make them more fit for [waging] war, that the souls of men are immortal, and that there is another life after this among the ghosts.
194.14. In Marcellinus I read this about them: the Druidæ, men of most lofty spirits and deep conceits, {not in 1606E{as confirmed by Pythagoras}not in 1606E}, much given to brotherly meetings, devote themselves to the study of and speculation about hidden and high matters. And scorning the world, they peremptorily state that the souls of men are immortal. Diogenes Laërtius writes that they used to voice their opinions about the mysteries of their art very obscurely in few words and short sentences, [that is] that God is to be worshipped; that we ought to do nothing that is evil, and that we must exercise ourselves in war skills and true strength.
194.15. But let us hear what Strabo {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{in the fourth book}1601L, not in 1608/1612I} {1606E only{of his Geography}1606E only}} reports about them. The Druids, he says, next to their earnest study of natural philosophy, discuss many matters concerning ethics or moral virtues. All men hold them in reverence, because of their strict justice, in the sense that both private and public execution of justice was theirs alone. Yet sometimes, when two armies were in the field ready to engage in battle, they have by their mediation made peace between them. But especially cases of murder are submitted to their judgment. And it is established as true by experience that they have always the greatest crops and store of fruits, and it is truly believed that these men can obtain from Gods hand plenty and fertility at will. These, and also others, have ordained that the soul of man, and the heaven or world, are both immortal. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Yet, a time shall come once when water and fire shall have the victory and upper hand.
194.16. From Diodorus Siculus hear this observation about them: They do moreover use soothsayers, who among them, he said, predicting by divination and sacrifices, are esteemed and of high importance, [and] all the common and vulgar people are at their obedience}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. When they consult [each other] about any matters of importance, they follow a very incredible and strange procedure. Because for that purpose they kill a man by striking him with a sword through his middle, and by the tearing and scattering of the parts of the body, and by the flow of blood, through certain experience and observation, they know what will happen from then on. It is an ancient custom, duly kept among themselves, that no sacrifice may be made without a philosopher being present, for they think that a sacrifice ought to be done only by those as know well the nature of heavenly things, as if these were indeed the best interpreters of the heavenly language used by the gods themselves, and by their intercession and mediation, they consider that all good things are to be sought and demanded from Gods hand.
194.17. Through their advice and counsel, they do all things that are to be done, both in time of war and in peace. {1601L{To their slaying of a man, the Strabo just mentioned in the seventh book {1606E only{of his Geography}1606E only} also makes a reference, where he calls them Vates}1601L}. There are poets among them [the Druids] of such importance that when the battle in the field is about to begin, and the swords are drawn, and darts have been cast, and the armies are ready to come to close blows, not only their friends, but even their enemies too are known to have ceased fighting {1606E only{through their request and mediation, and have not even dealt one single further blow}1606E only}. Thus, even under the most barbarous people you can find, rage makes place for wisdom and Mars bows for the muses. So far Diodorus Siculus.
194.18. Now let us in a similar manner listen to Dion Prusæus, who reports about them like this: The Celtæ have their Druids, a sort of men among them much given to divination and the study of philosophy, without whose advice and counsel it is not lawful for their kings to do anything or even to go round to consult what can best be done. So that if a man should indeed speak what is the truth, they rule as kings, and have all power, whereas their kings are merely servants, ministers, or executioners of their will and pleasure, although for the rest they sit on golden thrones, dwell in large and stately houses, and their daily fare is most dainty, and they drink and eat the best that may be bought for money.
194.19. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{It is also not amiss here to quote what the poet Lucanus [wrote about them in his Pharsalia]: And you, Druids of the holy, after the truce you have resumed your barbaric rites and customs. It is only for you to know the gods and heavenly powers, or not to know them. You live in the large forest of distant holy woods, and according to you, the dead do not search for the silent seat of Erebus, or the pallid kingdoms of the deep underworld, etc. [Lucanus in his Pharsalia continues by noting that the Druids believed in migration of the soul]}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. Above all these Druids, as Cæsar tells, there is one that is appointed as chief, and has command and authority over the rest. After his death, if any man excels among them for his worthiness and virtue, he is subsequently elected to succeed in this position. But if there are many that are of equal worthiness and dignity, then that person is elected who gets the greatest number of votes from the Druids, assembled for that purpose. Sometimes a controversy may be such, that they come to blows about it, and that sovereignty is challenged by the sword.
194.20. Once a year, at a certain time, they meet within the confines of the city of Carnuti a holy place {1606E only{Chartraine or Chartres}1606E only} {1595L, not in 1602G{(near the river Loire, if one is willing to believe the comedy called Querulus, attributed to Plautus)}1595L}, which is considered to be the middle province of all [of] France, and they keep court as if that place was consecrated for that purpose. To this place come all those who have any controversies, from all quarters around. [And] every man refers his case to their judgment, and is satisfied to abide by their arbitration and judgment}not in 1602G}. (In this Chartraine there seems to remain to this day a certain memorial inscription about the name Druids in a place called Dreux). {1595L, not in 1602G{Gabriel Simeonius in his Cæsar, recently revised, writes that he has seen, in a forest in this area, a reference to a remnant of the palace of the Druids}1595L, not in 1602G}. So much about these Druids, whose magic art and custom of killing men, as Plinius writes, continued even to his time, and finally, he adds, it was stopped, and they were forbidden to continue this practice by a proclamation of Tiberius Cæsar.
194.21. Suetonius says in his life of Claudius that it was first censured by Augustus, however, not generally, but only for the [Roman] citizens, but it was finally fully done away with by Claudius just mentioned. This is confirmed by Seneca {not in 1608/1612I{in his treatise entitled Claudij Ludus}not in 1608/1612I}. Yet, the name of the Druids was then not entirely extinct, as Tacitus shows clearly in the fourth book of his History, where he writes that by burning the capitol, which happened during the reign of Vespasianus, the Druids in vain attempted to make people believe that the possession and command over the whole world should now come to the nations inhabiting the other side of the Alps.
194.22. Ælius Lampridius writes that when Alexander Severus the emperor, went to war against the Galli, a woman Druid cried out in the French language with a loud voice: Thou goest into the field, but do not expect to gain a victory, do not trust thy soldiers, they will fail thee. And she was not wrong, for in those wars he was slain. Flavius Vopiscus reports that Aurelianus asked advice from the women Druids of France about his empire, whether it would remain [in the hands] of his descendants or not.
194.23. The same author says that when Diocletianus was still a private soldier, it was at Tongeren {1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Brabant}1591G4Add & 1602G only} predicted to him by a Druid woman that he would one day be the emperor of the whole world. After him, there is no longer any reference to them in any history, as far as I remember, {1595L, not in 1602G{except what can be gathered from Eusebius in his fourth book De Præpar., (for he lived in the time of Constantine the Great and Constantius, his son), where he writes that the Celtæ, even to his time, sacrificed men on their altars}1595L, not in 1602G}.
194.24. Plinius notes about the Druids that there is nothing which they consider more holy than the raisin of a tree, provided it is solid {1595L, but not in 1602G instead{the mistletoe (which they call dryos hyphear) and similarly they praise the tree on which it grows, especially if it is an oak}1595L, not in 1602G instead}. They choose groves of these trees standing apart by themselves [for their services], nor do they perform any divine service or sacrifice without a branch of this tree, so they may very well be considered to be called Druidæ after the Greek {1606E only{word [in Greek lettering] {1608/1612I only{drus, oak, and [are] as one would say Oak-priests}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. And indeed, whatever grows on these trees they truly believe to have been sent from heaven, and a manifest sign that God has chosen this tree and consecrated it to himself. They call it in their language All-heal.
194.25. When the sacrifices and banquets have been duly prepared and set ready under this tree, they bring two white bulls whose horns have never been bound before. The priest puts on a white garment, gets up into the tree ordained for that purpose, and with a golden knife prunes and lops off all the boughs. These are caught in a white vestry, {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only{like a soldiers cassock}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only}, before they fall on the ground. After this, they kill the bulls prepared for the sacrifice, and make their prayers to God [asking] that he blesses this gift to the benefit of everyone that promised to give it. They are convinced that any beast whatsoever that drinks a potion made of it, though so far barren, shall immediately become fertile, and [also] that it is an excellent antidote against all kinds of poison.
194.26. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{The same Plinius in the 3rd chapter of his 29th book tells a strange tale about a serpent's egg, which he claims he saw demonstrated and proved with his own eyes. I myself, he says, have seen one of these eggs, which had about the size of a nice round apple, covered with a gristly or cartilaginous shell, dented with many cavities like the hollow places where the legs of a fish called a polypus rest. These are the arts and cognitions of the Druids. It is to be recommended about them that they are a great and secret force against all kinds of contentions and brawls, procuring for him that bears it the upper hand, as also the favour and easy access to princes and great states, &c}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}.
194.27. Also, he records that the Druids were the first to show to the world that the herb savin has a special virtue [to protect] against all dangers & pernicious accidents which normally happen to mortal men. Moreover, they gather, with the right {1606E instead{left}1606E instead} hand {1591G4Add & 1602G only{on an empty stomach,}1595G4Add & 1602G only} never looking back, an herb which they call samolus, and claim [this], as [the author] testifies, to be an excellent remedy against all diseases of cows {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only have instead(hogs and swine}1591G4Add & 1602G end here; 1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
194.28. {1601L{The same author speaks like this about another herb called selago, {1606E only{[which is] as much like the herb savine as it is to what they call selago}1606E only}. It may not be cut with any knife or [other] instrument of iron, but must be gathered with the right hand wrapped in the skirt of ones coat, which must be rent off with the left hand, as if one was about to steal it. He that performs this feat must be clothed in a white garment, [be] barefooted, but his feet must be very clean, and all filth must have been removed. He must first offer sacrifice with bread and wine, before he gathers it [the herb]. Finally, it must be carried home in a clean cloth. Thus gathered, the Druids of the Gauls consider this herb to be a great protection and defence against all dangerous accidents and occurrences which usually happen to mortal men. Moreover they claim that the smell of it is beneficial to all diseases of the eyes. This is what the book says}1601L}. Such is the superstition of many nations in the world, and that mostly concerns foolish things, {1606E only{as Plinius mentions in the 44th chapter of his 26th book}1606E only}.
194.29. Who wants to know more about the etymology of the word Druids, let him turn to Goropius' Gallica, where he derives this word from a Dutch word, and proves that it means teacher of truth, or wise man, continually diligently searching for the truth. {1595L{Pomponius Mela also calls them Magistros sapientiæ}1595L}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{teachers and instructors of others in philosophy and all kinds of human wisdom}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. I could be satisfied by saying that the word means a divine, or student in the knowledge of God and heavenly things, (as Diodorus Siculus calls them) for I see that Druthin, in old German means God, and that in Otfrides gospels, a book printed and to be found in various peoples studies, {1606E only{especially of those who are lovers of antiquities}1606E only}, and besides that I know that the Icelanders, a people who speak the Germanic language, although in a dialect which in many respects is very different from what is now commonly spoken in High Germany, (as is also the case for the Danes, and the inhabitants of Norway and Sweden, {1606E only{with other countries as near neighbours, bordering on the Dutch)}1606E only}, [these Icelanders] yet to this day call God by the name of Druthin. {1601L{Diogenes Laërtius also seems to support this opinion who, on the authority of Aristoteles writes that they were called Semnothei, that is, religious and holy men, who fully devote themselves to the worship and service of God}1601L}.
194.30. In that elaborate and learned work by my singularly good friend M[r]. William Camden, {1606E only{which he wrote about the antiquities of England}1606E only}, {not in 1608/1612I{with the title of Britannia}not in 1608/1612I}, I read that a certain Albricus has written that the Saxons used to call a magus DRUIJ (a word which means in that language as much as a divine or philosopher), and indeed Plinius calls these Druids Magi, {1606E only{that is, wise men, as the word is often used and explained by the interpreter of the second chapter of St. Matthew's gospel}1606E only}. That they did not receive their name from the oak Plinius admits in a way, when he adds at the same place that they [their name] seem to have been derived from the Greek word for oak or mistletoe. {1595L{(Now there is nobody who is unaware that what seems to be true, and what is true indeed, are two different things)}1595L}. Again, how can they derive their name from the Greek word [in Greek lettering] drus when Cæsar, a very reliable witness, testifies plainly that their art and discipline was [only] first invented in England, where there was never any colony of the Greeks that settled there for all I know.
194.31. For that voyage of Ulysses (and about his coming to this island [England]) is considered to be a fable, and not a true story by all people of sound judgment and careful thought in this kind of learning. {1595L{Nor will I ever, in the company of Eratosthenes be convinced to believe it, until somebody shall show me the person who sewed together a bag full of winds}1595L} [see text of Ort 224, Ulysses travels]. And nobody can deny that the German language was spoken there except he who thinks that the authority of Cæsar and Tacitus have no great validity. For Cæsar has simply left on record in the same place that from Belgium (the Low Countries, where he also says that the Germani Cisrhenani dwelt), certain settlers crossed the sea to this isle, and seated themselves there. He writes that Caledonia, (a large part of this isle) was inhabited by a people who came to that place from Germany. And because there is nothing more sacred, in the judgment of these Druids than the oak and the mistletoe, as we have shown out of Plinius, and because Jupiter was here by them represented in the form of a mighty, fine oak, as Maximus Tyrius tells us, I suppose that Diodorus calls them by another name, or else, with the same meaning, but wrongly, Saronides {1595L{(although even in this place we may also read in those various different names of Druids, as discussed in the second edition of our Thesaurus}1595L}. I know that Annius, on the basis of that liar Berosus writes that these Druids were called by various different names {1595L{such as Barrus [&] Sarron}1595L} certain kings of ancient Gaul.
194.32. But as regards these authors, let they defend their credibility for themselves. {1606E only{I know it is shrewdly cracked}1606E only}. Some think that the expression Au Gui l'an neuf, which is said at new year under the mistletoe, and which to this day every year, on the last [day] of December is usually to be sung publicly in France, came from them. Perhaps it was based on this passage by Ovidius: Ad viscum Druidæ, Druidæ cantare solebant, [at the Druid's mistletoe, the Druids used to sing] which is fully discussed by Goropius in his Gallica, by Vinetus [based] on Ausonius, and by Vigenereus [based] on Cæsars Commentaries. {1595L{Conradus Celtes}1595L}, Irenicus, Althamerus and Aventinus agree with me that these Druids, being driven to that place by Tiberius and Claudius, emperors of Rome, went beyond the Rhine and settled in High Germany, and here among them, to the present day there remains that same kind of night bug commonly called the philosophical shoe, or as they call it DRVTTENFVSS. And it is of a five-cornered form, (as the learned Ioachimus Camerarius the younger has explained to me in his letters), {not in 1608/1612I{like the emblem and inscription of [in Greek lettering] Hygeias or}not in 1608/1612I} good health. This they engrave upon their cradles, believing that by these means the young infants are safely protected against the fairies, {1606E only{hobgoblins and night-walking spirits}1606E only}.
194.33. Conradus Celtes describes certain ancient stone images at the foot of the pine-bearing mountains (FICHTELBERG they usually call it, in the centre of all of Germany), which he tells he saw in a certain abbey there. These he thinks resemble very truly the true images of these Druids. They were six in number, he says, set in the wall near the church door, seven feet high each, barefooted, and bareheaded. Each of them wore a Greek {1606E has instead{Spanish}1606E instead} cloak with a hood and an inscription, and a long beard going as far down as the girdle, and around the nostrils parted, and dressed this way and that way. Each of them had a book and a walking staff in his hand. They were sad and grim of countenance, their heads leaned somewhat towards one shoulder, and their eyes are steadily fixed on the ground.
194.34. That description which Iacobus Scepper gives in his Chorography of Germany, is in my opinion false and foolish, for he adorns their neck, wrists and fingers with chains, bracelets and rings. Moreover, he adds to these a pair of buskins, such as the ancient philosophers were said to have worn, and many-coloured garments. From where he obtained this description I do not know. For Plinius states clearly that they wore white fine linen, as we told before {1601L{and Strabo in his seventh book (where he calls them Vates, Prophets), describes them in white vests, with fine linen frocks put over them, fastened with a button, girt with a brass girdle, and barefooted}1606E ends here}.
{1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S show two sides of a coin and the following description in cursive script above them{Here I am pleased to show one of my old silver coins, commemorating Ser. Sulpitij Galba, a deputee of Cæsar in Gallia, when Cæsar had divided it into three parts. Later, under Augustus it was divided into four parts}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}. (Coin side shown on the left has a person on horseback with a dagger, called SER.GALBA.II.MP; the coin side shown on the right has three female heads looking right, and the inscription TRES GALLIAE).

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