Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 161

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

161.1. {1590L4Add{ICELAND.

161.2. I find in the Ecclesiastical history lately published and printed under the name of M[r.] Adams that the people of this land came to Adelbert, bishop of Bremen, to entreat him to appoint for them some learned theologians that might be able to convert them to Christianity. I do not think that there is any mention of this nation in any other writer more ancient than he, although I must confess that Sigebertus Gemblacensis has left records I read, saying that the great king Arthur around the year of Christ 470 subdued this island.
161.3. This I take as a fable, and not as any true history. For I know for certain that it was never written by Sigebert, but shuffled in, as many other things, by somebody else, {not in 1598F{(because a good manuscript copy of mine}not in 1598F}, {1602S{as also another in parchment belonging to a friend of mine {1602S only{S. Murio}1602S only}do not have it)1602S}.
161.4. Now this Adelbert died around the year after Christ's incarnation 1070. The name Thule, {not in 1598F{spoken of by almost all ancient writers, and historians as well as geographers}not in 1598F}, does not refer to this island, (this in contrast to [what] almost all the learned men of our time [say]) but rather to Scone ([or] Scandia Peninsula), {1606E only{a Neck-land of Norway}1606E only}.
161.5. [I base this] not only on the authority of Procopius, a serious, reliable writer, but also because this remark and remnant of that name remains to the present day in Scone, that part which is opposite to the Orkney islands, namely at a place in Norway where the famous market of the people from Bergen {1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L have instead{of the Belgæ}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L instead} is located.
161.6. Among other shires in Norway there is one which they call Tilemarcke that is, the market of the shire of Tule. {1601L{The islands opposite this shore are commonly called Hetland and Shetland. The seamen, as I understand from my good friend Mr. W. Camden from England usually call them Thylinsel, from which I conclude that this island got its name from the mainland directly opposite to it. For what else is Thilensel but the isle opposite Thile?}1601L}.
161.7. This opinion of mine is not only confirmed by Pomponius Mela, who writes that Thule was opposite the sea coast of the Belgæ {not in 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{(he literally says 'I say Belgarum, not Brittanicorum littori, [that is] the sea coast of Britain, where indeed Iceland is situated, and not Thule')}not in 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, but also by Ptolemæus, the prince of all geographers and writers on this topic, who locates Thule at 29 degrees of longitude and 63 degrees of latitude.
161.8. This position and calculation of degrees falls exactly on Tilemarke. And as regards Iceland, anyone who has looked at geographical maps and charts will know that it lies on the first degree of longitude and on the sixtieth degree of latitude. {1595L, not in 1598F{And I am convinced that even Arngrimus Jonas, a born Icelander, in his treatise on Iceland, where he says that the latitude of this island is about 44 degrees and 45 minutes, was seriously in error}1595L, not in 1598F}. It is therefore clear, as he also says, that Iceland is not the same as Thule.
161.9. Procopius confirms this, who says it consisted of 13 tribes, and as many kings, and that it is ten times as large as Britain, {not in 1598F{so that not undeservedly Stephanus calls it large}not in 1598F}, although in fact Iceland is much smaller than Britain, [and] that the Scritifinni, a kind of people that go by this name, inhabited Thule. Diaconus calls them Strictofinni and speaks about them in [the context of] Scandia, as does Iornandes in his history as well. But he corruptly calls them Crefennæ (which I would like to note here). Thus, reader, you see that which [the former] calls Scandia or Scone, the latter calls Thule.
161.10. And these people dwell to this very day in the same Scandia, [still] called by the same name without any corruption. For they are called vulgarly Scrickefinner and they dwell in Scandia, not in Iceland.
161.11. In Thule, according to Procopius, there are huge, extensive woods. In Iceland the whole world knows that there are none [of these] at all. And therefore Isacrius {not in 1598F{on the basis of Lycophron}not in 1598F} is quite correct, when he states that Thule is to the East of Britain, and not to the North, as Iceland [is]. {not in 1598F{This is in contrast with what Strabo says ([further] a most worthy and diligent geographer in the sound judgement of all the learned), but he got this from elsewhere, namely, as he says, from Pytheas, a shamefully lying historiographer, {1595L{whose custom it was, as Diodorus Siculus records in his second book, to counterfeit and coin fables so cunningly that often they passed for true stories}1595L, not in 1598F}.
161.12. This is the Thule which Tacitus reports on, when the Roman navy sailed around Britain. They saw and watched it, but not closely, and they probably did not enter it [by going on land]. This could not have been Iceland, which is much farther off, and less known. But this should be enough here about Thule or Scandia. We will now endeavour to speak about Iceland, an island altogether unknown, and not even once named by any ancient writer.
161.13. ICELAND, or the frozen or icy land, which is all the same, was so named after the ice which lies on its Northern side all the time. For it is there that the frozen sea begins, {not in 1598F{as Crantzius writes}not in 1598F}. {1595L{It was [also] called SNEELAND after the snow {1606E only{which all year long continues to lie here in some places}1606E only}. It was also called GARDARSHOLM, that is, Garder's Isle, {not in 1598F{so called as Arngrimus, himself a born Icelander, writes}not in 1598F}, after a certain Gardar, a man with this name who first discovered the island or who [first] inhabited it}1595L}.
161.14. This island is one hundred German miles in length, {1595L{as most writers agree, but Arngrimus Ionas we just mentioned says it is 144 miles long}1595L}. Most of it is uninhabited, for it is mountainous, especially towards the North. This is caused by the bitter blasts of the Southern {1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Northwesterly}1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} winds, which will not allow, as Olaus tells us, something as low as a shrub or bush ever to grow. It is subject to the king of Norway, {1595L, not in 1598F{and has continued this situation ever since the year of Christ 1260, at which time they first paid their homage to that crown, as the same Arngrimus confirms}1595L, not in 1598F}.
161.15. After which the king of Denmark {not in 1606E{(and also of Norway)}not in 1606E} now every year sends there a lieutenant, who is their governor, as in past times they were governed by certain bishops of their own, by whom they were converted to Christianity {not in 1598F{in the time of Adelbert}not in 1598F}, {1606E only{bishop of Bremen}1606E only}, as said before.
161.16. During the reign of Harald with the fair hair (Pulchricomue Harfagro they commonly called him, {1595L, not in 1598F{as Ionas writes)}1595L, not in 1598F} who was the first monarch from Norway, it began to be inhabited, as some like to have it. Namely, when he had overcome the petty kings, he banished them from Norway. Being expelled and seeking a new dwelling in some other place, they abandoned their own native country, took to ships with their wives, children and whole families, and finally landed on this island, and settled here. This seems to me to have happened around the year 1000 after Christ's incarnation, {1595L{but the author Arngrimus Ionas says it was in the year 874.
161.17. He also provides a list with the names of all their bishops}1595L}. The first bishop, {not in 1598F{as Crantzius writes}not in 1598F}, was Isleff. I find in {not in 1598F{the abridged version of}not in 1598F} Zenies Eclogs that it was subject to the command of the same Norwegians for about 200 years. I also find there that Zichme, king of Friesland, attempted to wage war against this island, but in vain, because he was repelled by a garrison of soldiers placed here by the king of Norway to defend the island against attacks by enemies.
161.18. It is divided into four parts or provinces, after the four quarters of the world, namely into WESTFIORDVNG, AVSTLENDINGAFIORDVNG, NORDLENDINGAFIORDVNG and SVNDLENDINGAFIORDVNG, that is to say West quarter, East quarter, North quarter and South quarter. It has only two bishop sees, Schalholt and Hola, with some schools attached to them. In the diocese of Hola one finds the monasteries Pingora, Remested, Modur and Munketuere. In the diocese of Schalholdt there are Videy, Pyrnebar, Kirkebar and Skirda.
161.19. Yet, through the letters which Velleius, the author of this map, wrote to me, I understand that there are here nine monasteries, and besides that 329 {1608/1612I has instead{129}1608/1612I instead} churches. They have no coins of their own, nor cities, for the mountains are their cities, and their sources for pleasure and delight, as Cranzius testifies, who also says that they live mostly in caves, making their lodgings and rooms by excavating them from the sides of the hills. {1595L{Which is confirmed by Olaus, particularly [referring] to winter time}1595L}.
161.20. They [also] build their houses with fish bones, for lack of wood. {1595L{In contrast to this, Ionas says that many churches and houses have been built here reasonably fairly and stately in wood, stone and turf}1595L}. Wares they exchange with merchants for other wares. {not in 1598F{They are not at all acquainted with dainties and pleasures}not in 1598F}, {not in 1606E{nor do they import them from abroad}not in 1606E}. They speak the Cimbrian language, or the ancient Germanic tongue, into which we saw that the holy Script has been translated, and published in Hola, {not in 1598F{(a place in the Northern part of this island) in a most excellent and fair document}not in 1598F} in the year 1584.
161.21. I said in the old Germanic tongue, for I observe it to be the same as that in which a small book has been published under the name Otfrides Gospels. {1595L, not in 1598F{Ionas himself confesses that they have no other kind of cattle but horses and cows}1595L, not in 1598F}. Velleius writes that they have no trees but birch and juniper. The soil is fertile for pasturing, and the grass is so luxurious, that all men who have written of this island are in agreement that, unless they sometimes take their cattle away from the meadows and moderate their feeding, these will be in danger of being constricted in their own fat. {1595L, not in 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Yet, [these measures are all] often in vain, as the same Arngrimus confirms}1595L, not in 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}.
161.22. The soil is not good for corn, or for arable land, and therefore does not produce any grain. Therefore, they mostly live on fish only. This [fish] is dried and beaten, and as it were ground to meal which they turn into loaves, which they use on their table instead of bread. In former times they drank fresh water, but now also [drink made of] corn, brought to them from foreign places, {not in 1598F{[for] they have learned to brew a kind of beer}not in 1598F}. {1595L not in 1598F{So that after they began to trade with foreigners who resorted to them, they also began to love better drinks and have stopped drinking water}1595L not in 1598F}.
161.23. For as Georgius Bruno convinces me, the Lübeckers, Hamburgers, and Bremers come every year to this island, taking with them flour, bread, beer, mead, wine, {1595L, not in 1608/1612I{Aqua vitæ}1595L, not in 1608/1612I}, coarse English clothes, and other such low-priced [things], [and] wool and linen, iron, steel, tin, copper, silver, money both [in] silver and gold, knives, shoes, hats and handkerchiefs for women, {1598F only{hats for men}1598F only} and wood of which they build their houses and make their fishing boats. For these they exchange the Iceland cloth (they usually call it Watman), huge lumps of brimstone, and great amounts of dried fish {1606E only{which we call stockfish}1606E only}.
161.24. All of this comes from the Western and Southern part of the island. From the East and the North parts of the island, where plenty of grass grows, they transport into other countries mutton and beef, butter and sometimes the hides of sheep and the skins and furs of other beasts, [such as] foxes, white falcons and horses, for the most part such as roam around freely {1606E only{{without being broken in by any rider on horseback}1606E only}. The horns of oxen and cows here are without horns, but this is not the case for sheep.
161.25. Saxo Grammaticus and Olaus Magnus tell about the many wonders and strange works {1606E only{by God}1606E only} on this island, and it will not be amiss to recite some of them in this place. But especially [about] mount Hekla which burns continually, {not in 1598F{like the Ætna{1608/1612I only{or Mongibello}1608/1612I only; not in 1598F} {1595L, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{on Sicily}1595L, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, although its flames do not always show, but only at certain times, as Arngrimus Ionas writes, and confirms as having been recorded in their histories, [notably] in the years 1104, 1157, 1222, 1300 {1598F has instead{1320}1598F instead}, 1341 {1598F has instead{1340}1598F instead}, 1362, 1389 and 1558, which was the most recent time that a fire broke out of this hill.
161.26. Of a similar nature is another hill which they call Helgafell, {1595L{that is, the Holy mount}1595L}. About this mountain Bruno, {not in 1598F{a laborious student whose worthy work has described all the cities in the world, famous and well known the world over, has written in his private letters to me}not in 1598F} that in the year 1580 {1595L, not in 1598F{(Ionas says it happened in the year 1581) not in the Hekla, but in another mound called Helgafell}1595, not in 1598F}, fire and stones erupted with such explosions, thundering and hideous noise, that eighty miles away from it one would have thought that double cannons had been discharged here. At this hill there is a huge bay, where spirits of men lately deceased offer themselves to be seen and recognised so plainly by those that once knew them during their lifetime, that they are often perceived as still to be alive, and unaware of being dead.
161.27. Nor do [the onlookers] perceive that they were deceived, until the ghosts be gone. {1595L, not in 1598F{(Ionas accounts for this fable)}1595L, not in 1598F}. There are also some spirits who assume the appearance of being in the business of mortal men, or of such men that came to their end by some violent misfortune, {1595L{as Olaus reports}1595L}. They call these drolls, as Rithmayer testifies. {1595L, not in 1598F{(Now a droll [really] is a giant from the mountains, if we may believe Arngrime Jonas}1595L, not in 1598F}, {1606E only{an Icelander by birth and upbringing}1606E only}). Here is a spring which, because of its filthy fuming water, kills anything that the earth brings forth naturally, and whatever is besmeared with this smoky fume, in the course of time becomes as hard as a stone, yet, it retains the shape that it had before.
161.28. There is also a spring with pestilent waters, and whoever tastes or drinks this, will immediately react as if he had drunk poison, and die. Here are also certain waters which are in properties and taste somewhat like a drink that consists of malt. There are fires here that will not burn or consume flax, yet they will dry up and consume water. They have bears, crows and white hares. {1595L, not 1598F{And also eagles with white tails, as our author Ionas, the Icelander whom we have often cited, confirms. These are by Plinius (as asserted by him there) called Pygargi}1595L, not in 1598F}. {1606E only{I think we call them Wingtails}1606E only}.
161.29. But those that desire to know all the strange wonders of this island, let them read Albert Crantz, Saxo Grammaticus, {not in 1598F{Ioannes Magnus}not in 1598F} and Olaus Magnus, {not in 1598F{whom they may believe or not believe, as they find cause or not. {1595L{To those they may add that which David Chytræus has written about this island in his Saxon history}1595L}. If I am not deceived, the fable which Isacius recites {not in 1608/1612I{in Lycophron}not in 1608/1612I} about a certain island in Brittany, to which he says the souls of dead men are transported, pertains to this island. Because a story much like this is commonly told about Iceland}not in 1598F}.

161.30. An explanation of the marks and letters on this map

A. is a fish, commonly called NAHVAL. If anyone eats of this fish, he will die immediately. It has a tooth in the front part of its head standing out seven cubites [ells] {1608/1612I only{which amounts to about eleven feet}1608/1612I only}. Some have sold it as the unicorn's horn. It is thought to be a good antidote and powerful medicine against poison. This monster is forty ells [fore-arms] {1608/1612I has instead{forty strides of 5 feet per stride}1608/1612I instead} in length.
B. the Roider is a fish of one hundred and thirty ells {1608/1612I has instead{30 strides}1608/1612I instead} in length, which has no teeth. The meat of it is very good, wholesome and tasty. Its fat is good against many diseases.
C. The BURCHVALUR has a head bigger than its entire body. It has many very strong teeth, of which they make bricks {1598F & 1606E instead{chess pieces}1598F & 1606E instead}. It is 60 cubites long.
D. The Hyena or sea hog is a monstrous kind of fish about which you may read in the 21st book of Olaus Magnus.
E. Ziphius {1606E only{(maybe he means Xiphius, the sword fish)}1606E only}, a horrible sea monster {not in 1598F{that swallows a black seal in one bite}not in 1598F}.
F. The English whale, thirty ells long. It has no teeth, but its tongue is seven ells {1608/1612I has instead{strides}1608/1612I instead} in length.
G. HROSHUALUR, that is to say as much as sea horse, with manes hanging down from its neck like a horse. It often causes great scare to fishermen.
H. The largest kind of whale, which seldom shows itself. It is more like a small island than like a fish. It cannot follow or chase smaller fish because of its huge size and the weight of its body, yet it preys on many, which it catches by natural cunning which it applies to get its food.
I. SKAUTUHVALUR. This fish is fully covered with bristles or bones. It is somewhat like a shark, but infinitely bigger. When it appears, it is like an island, and with its fins it overturns ships.
K. SEENAUT, sea cow of grey colour. They sometimes come out of the sea and feed on the land in groups. They have a small bag hanging by their nose with the help of which they {1598F only{can keep their food and}1598F only} live in the water. If it is broken, they live altogether on land, accompanied by other cows.
L. STEIPEREIDUR, a most gentle kind of whale, which for the defence of fishermen fights against other kinds of whales. It is forbidden by proclamation that any man should kill or hurt this kind of whale. It has a length of at least 100 cubits.
M. STAUKUL. The Dutch call it Springval. It has been observed to stand for a whole day long upright on its tail. It derives its name from its leaping. It is a very dangerous enemy of seamen and fishermen, and greedily goes after human flesh.
N. ROSTUNGER {not in 1598F{(also called Rosmar)}not in 1598F} is somewhat like a sea calf. It goes to the bottom of the sea on all four of its feet, {not in 1598F{which are very short}not in 1598F}. Its skin can hardly be penetrated by any weapon. It sleeps for twelve hours on end, hanging on some rock by its two long teeth. Each of its teeth are at least one ell long and the length of its whole body is fourteen ells.
O. Spermaceti or a simple kind of amber, {not in 1598F{commonly called HUALAMBUR}not in 1598F}.
P. Blocks and trunks of trees, by force of winds and violent tempests torn off by their roots {not in 1598F{from the cliffs of Norway, tossed to and fro, and surviving many storms}not in 1598F}, finally cast upon and coming to rest at this shore.
Q. Huge and marvellously big heaps of ice, brought here by the tide from the frozen sea, making loud and terrible noises. Some pieces are often as high as forty cubits. On some of these, white bears sit together, to catch fish {1606E instead{watching the innocent fish play about in exercise}1606E instead; 1598F ends here}.

161.31. But I think it would not be amiss to write down the verses of Erasmus Michælis, as he wrote them on Iceland in his third book of De re Nautica. [in two columns, except for 1608/1612I]
[first column:]
161.32. Vltima Parrasias Islandia spectat in Arctos
161.33. Sub Caurum porrecta gradus: non diuite tantùm
161.34. Læta solo, cùm vel cæcis occlusa cauernis
161.35. Sulphura flaua coquit mixtisque extrudit ærenis:
161.36. Pabula vel lætis pecori gratissima pratis
161.37. Fundit, & oppletas inuestit gramine valles:
161.38. At vicina etiam solidos cum littora pisces
161.39. Nec numeris, nec mensura certisve ferendos
[second column:]
161.40. Nominibus stipat, ratibusque immittere certat.
161.41. Prouentu siquidem vario cùm excesserit vno
161.42. Hoc vincit tamen, & cumulato pisce redundat,
161.43. Aucta opibus fortesque animis complexa colonos.
161.44. Cuius & in Notios quæ pars iacet obuia ventos
161.45. Æstuat æternis per aperta foramina flammis,
161.46. Eructatque globos cinerum, trepidoque boatu
161.47. Hecla tonans inter sparsa pice sidera lambit.

161.48.{1606E & 1608/1612I only{Which in English/Italian is this:

161.49. Iceland, a famous isle that is far remote and distant from the main[land]
161.50. North West from there lies in the frozen sea; the country's chief feature
161.51. Is pale brimstone, which here in mountains high in plenty great is found
161.52. Or here and there like sand on the shore lies scattered on the ground
161.53. The excellent pastures growing fat, the lowly meadows always green,
161.54. Such store of cattle and cows in valleys feed, as may be seen elsewhere.
161.55. The sea is on many sides all around it, so many different sorts of fish
161.56. It yields, that none know all their names, nor wish more to be there,
161.57. Whereof they daily load big ships, and send those away from there
161.58. To foreign countries every way; though many things commend this island,
161.59. Yet, in fish it far excels all kingdoms in the whole world.
161.60. By this the nation grows in wealth, and the people grow lusty strong and stout.
161.61. The Northern parts which lie cold and bleak in the frozen zone
161.62. Breathe forth flashing flames of fire with lumps of ashes, earth and stone.
161.63. What burning coals with filthy stinking smoke mount Hekla casts out,
161.64. With hideous cracks and thundering noise, heard from far and near}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.

161.65. Certain words explained to help the reader in understanding the map.
161.66. WIE, that is, inlet or bay. JÖKUL, a mountain or hill [actually: glacier]. EY, an isle. EYER, islands. NES, the Dutch call it NAS and NUES, that is, a nose, a promontory or foreland, extending into the sea. LEND, the Dutch pronounce it LANDT, the land or earth. CLOSTER, a cloister or monastery. AUST, the East. WEST, the place where the sun sets. NORD, the North. SUYD, the South}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L end here}. {1601L{FIOR means four}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1591 German 4 Add., the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch and the 1602 German editions:

161.67. {1591G4Add{ Iceland.

161.68. Iceland provides testimony for its name which comes from the ice which is always present on the North side of this island, for as Crantzius says, there begins the frozen sea. This island is 100 German miles in length. It is mostly uninhabited and mountainous, particularly in the North, where the cruel gusts from the North-Westerly winds, (as Olaus writes) prevents all trees and shrubs to take root. It belongs to the kingdom of Norway and therefore the king of Denmark, who is also the king of Norway, is a governor there, who is obeyed like they used to obey once their bishops, by whom they were converted to Christianity when under the rule of Adelbertus {not in 1598/1610/1613D{bishop of Bremen}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
161.69. The first inhabitants of this island, according to some, settled there in the time of Haraldus Schoonhaar [Fair Hair], the first chief of Norway. This chief had chased a number of princes out of Norway, who arrived here and, forgetting their home country, were the first settlers of Iceland. This is supposed to have happened in the year one thousand. Their first bishop is by Crantzius called Islephus. {1591G4Add & 1602G only{Thus I find in the Eclogs or short poems by Nicolai Zeni that they were under their rule two hundred years ago, and I also read there that Zichme, a king of Friesland intended to capture this island, but in vain, for the soldiers which were sent to this island by the king of Norway to protect and guard it expelled them from the island}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. This island is divided into four parts, called after the four directions of the world, namely West-Fiording, Austlendingafiordung, Nordlendingafiordung and Sundlendingafiordung, like West-quarter, East-quarter, North-quarter and South-quarter. It has two bishoprics, Schalholt and Hola, to which schools belong.
161.70. Under Hola there are the monasteries Pingora, Remested, Modur and Munketuere. To Schalholt belong Videy, Pyrnebar, Kirkebar and Skirda. But I gather from Velleius who wrote this to me that there are nine monasteries there, and 329 churches. They have no coins of their own, nor cities, for they dwell in mountains, the fountains of their joy, as Crantzius writes, who also tells that they live in holes in the side of the mountains, which is confirmed by Olaus, particularly in winter.
161.71. They build their houses of fish bones by lack of wood, and they also do not sell but only trade goods for goods, nor do they know about outlandish pleasures except where these are imported by foreign merchants. They speak the Danish {1598/1610/1613D has instead{Cimbrian}1598/1610/1613D instead} language, or Old-German, and have translated the bible into that language, and in Hola, on the North side of the island, it has been printed in beautiful letters in the year 1584. [title of this bible: Biblia Pad Er, Öll Heilog Ritning, vtlögd a Norraenu. Med formalum Doct. Martini Lutheri, edited and partly translated by bishop Gudbrandur Thorláksson, Holum: Jone Jons, 1584]. {1591G4Add & 1602G only{I just said In the Old-German language and I note that in the same language a booklet has appeared under the name The Gospel of Otfridus}1591G4Add & 1602G only}.
161.72. There are no trees except the birch tree and the juniper tree, as Velleius informs us. Old writers testify that the meadows are so juicy that if you do not watch the cattle it may choke of unbridled overeating. But it is unfit for corn here which is why the inhabitants mostly eat fish, which is also kneaded into a kind of fishbread. They used to drink [only] water, but they have now learned to add some herbs to it {1591G4Add & 1602G only{for boiling}1591G4Add & 1602G only} as a result of trade with foreigners. For {1591G4Add & 1602G only{for as Brunius reports to me}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, people from Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck sail every year to Iceland with flour, bread, beer, honey, brandy, English linen {1591G4Add & 1602G only{and other cloths}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, iron, steel, copper, tin {1591G4Add & 1602G only{silver, gold and silver coins, knives, shoes, women's hoods, veils, bonnets}1591G4Add & 1602G only} and wood with which they build and equip their houses and fishing ships.
161.73. [The merchants] obtain in return Icelandic linen commonly called Watman, also large pieces of hewn sulphur, and an incredible amount of dried fish, and this mostly from the Southern and Western part. From the East and the North which has a lot of grass comes meat of oxen and sheep as well as butter, furs and hides, foxes, white falcons, horses which are mostly of the ambling kind. The oxen and cows have no horns here {1591G4Add & 1602G only{but unlike their sheep}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Many wondrous things of nature are described concerning this Iceland by Saxo Grammaticus and Olaus Magnus. We will tell some of them here.
161.74. In the first place there is mount Hekla which with steady fire like mount Ætna is always burning. This mountain, as Georgius Brunus, a man known in all cities because he has depicted the cities of the entire world, writes to me, erupted in the year 1580 with exceedingly great violence and thunder, casting forth fire and stones, {1591G4Add & 1602G only{as if a huge cannon had been discharged 80 miles away}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, {1598/1610/1613D only{much frightening all people}1598/1610/1613D only}. Next to this mountain there is a hole where some night-ghosts appear which resemble living human beings so much that people seem to address acquaintances, not knowing they were deceased, and they only realize that they are in error when these ghosts disappear again. One also finds ghosts here who {1591G4Add & 1602G only{have died some violent death, or as a result of an accident}1591G4Add & 1602G only} present themselves to assist people. These are called Drollen, as Rithaymerus testifies.
161.75. There is a fountain here with a smoky kind of water, and whoever is affected by this smoke hardens into stone. There is also a fountain with pernicious water. Whoever drinks from it will collapse because of the strength of its poison. There are hidden brooks which taste like beer. {1591G4Add & 1602G only{You also find fire here which does not burn hemp, but which does consume water}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Here are also bears, ravens and hares of a white colour. Who wants to know more about these miraculous things may read Crantzius, Saxo Grammaticus, Ioannes and Olaus Magnus, and may decide for himself whether he wants to believe them or reject them.
[1598/1610/1613D next text page] {1591G4Add & 1602G only{And if my impression is correct, then, as Isacius writes to Lycophron, to this island belong some English islands, to which the souls of those who have died are transferred. For the common people among us truly believe these fables about Iceland}1591G4Add & 1602G only}.

161.76. Explanation of the signs and letters on this map.

161.77. A. The fish [called] Nahual. Whoever eats of it will die immediately. It has a tooth protruding far from the front of its head, as much as seven cubits. Some thought it to be a unicorn on account of this tooth. Some believe it is effective against poison. The beast is forty ells long.
161.78. B. Roider. This [beast] is 130 ells long and has no teeth. It tastes good, and its fat is a medicine against many diseases.
161.79. C. Burchvalur has a head which is larger than its entire body. It has many strong teeth {1598/1610/1613D only{of which chess pieces are made}1598/1610/1613D only}, and its length is 60 cubites.
161.80. D. A hyena or sea-pig, a monster, as can be read in Olaus Magnus, book 21 {1598/1610/1613D has instead{12}1598/1610/1613D instead}.
161.81. E. Ziphius, a terrible sea-monster which devours {1591G4Add & 1602G only{black}1591G4Add & 1602G only} seals.
161.82. F. The British whale, 30 ells long, without teeth but with a tongue of seven ells.
161.83. G. Hroschvalur, as if you said a sea-horse, which has manes like a horse, and which is harmful to fishermen.
161.84. H. The largest kind of whale, which does not show itself often, more resembling an island than a fish. It has difficulties, because of its weight and size, to chase smaller fish, but catches them all the same by means of cunning.
161.85. I. Skautuhvalur: very nervous, not unlike a thorn-back, but much larger, for it resembles an island in the sea, and it turns over ships with its fins.
161.86. K. Seenaut, Sea-oxen {1598/1610/1613D only{with a grey colour}1598/1610/1613D only}. They may come out of the sea and will toss on the beach in large numbers. It has a small bladder under its nose which is useful for them for orientation in the water, and if this breaks, they will live with other oxen.
161.87. L. Steiperidur is the sweetest among the whales. It fights other whales on behalf of the fishermen. Therefore, it is forbidden by law for anyone to afflict this fish. It is one hundred cubits long.
161.88. M. Staukul, in German Springhual will stand upright all day long on its tail. He has the reputation to jump, is an enemy of small ships, and is keen on human flesh.
161.89. N. Rostunger, also called Rosmarus, resembles a sea-calf, and creeps on four small short feet on the bottom of the sea. Its hide cannot be damaged by cutting or beating it. Asleep it hangs by its two teeth on a cliff for twelve hours. Each tooth is larger than an ell, and the entire fish is larger than 14 [ells].
161.90. O. The seed of whales {1598/1610/1613D only{resembling Amber}1598/1610/1613D only}, called Hualambur.
161.91. P. Woodblocks from the cliffs of Norway, tossed away by the violence of the wind, thrown together here, after having been uprooted by a violent tempest.
161.92. Q. A large, unmeasured heap of ice, coming from the frozen sea, making a terrible noise when parts of it pile up as high as 40 cubits. White bears climb it to catch fish}1591G4Add & 1602G end here}.
161.93. {1598/1610/1613D only{I would like to add here some verses by Erasmus Michael which he wrote down in the third book about naval matters of Iceland. They are like this in our Dutch language.

161.95. In the North, the farthest island is Iceland, of great renown.
Not only because there the yellow sulphur boils in the earth,
Or because it luxurious valleys are dressed in green,
For cattle that mows the grass with their teeth for food,
But also when dried much fish fills
Their ships, and on the beach are piled up in ever growing heaps.
Her many gifts are augmented by the fish,
Altogether, yes, without an end. Its inhabitants, pious and honoured,
Are known everywhere. The part towards the South
Burns with eternal fire, and through many gaping holes
Ejects balls of ashes, and in wrath
Hekla licks the sky with its tarlike flames}1598/1610/1613D only which ends here}.

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