Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 156

Text, scholarly version only, translated from the 1584 Latin 3rd Add., 1584 Latin, 1584 German 3rd Add., 1585 French 3rd Add., 1587 French, 1588 Spanish and 1592 Latin edition. It proved impossible to identify names of places, rivers and areas occurring in this text:

156.1. {1584L3Add{PRVSSIA.

156.2. Cromerus is his description of Poland describes this country in the following manner: Among many nations of Sarmatia in Europe, the Borussi are by Ptolemæus placed very far North on that coast where now in my opinion the Livonians and Moscovites dwell, beyond the river Chernish, neighbouring on the Ryphæans. I agree with Erasmus Stella that these [Prussians] passed further South and West in time, and took into their possession a great part of Sarmatia, which on the East is bordered by the Russians and Moscovites, and on the South is enclosed by woods and the Hercynian forest, and along that coast, the Venedian bay or the Baltic and Codani seas, even up to the rivers Vistula [Weichsel] & Ossa, to be called Borussi or Prussi, names that are not very different [from one another].
156.3. In this area now live the Livonians, Lithuanians, Samagites and the Prussians, who still retain their ancient name, nations which are distinguished from each other in the sense that they are subject to various different states and are governed by different laws and policies, but use the same vernacular language, wholly different from the Slavonic ones, yet having various Latin words mixed and intermingled with their own, but mostly corrupted, and with Italian and Spanish word endings rather than Latin ones.
156.4. The Dutch and Germans have recently conquered that part which lies close to the sea and is called Prussia and Livonia, and established settlements there. This is the reason why the German language is more familiar and customary to these people than their ancient and vulgar language, especially in cities and towns. This is also the case among the Lithuanians, who because of their being in the neighbourhood of and because of their contacts with the Russians and the settlements supported from there, speak Russian reasonably well.
156.5. The statement by Duglossus, who derives the name and origin of this nation from Prusias, the king of Bithynia must be considered a mere fable, not worth refuting. Some think that the Borussi where called like that in German because they lived near to the Russi but whether this is true or false I do not want to discuss here. When and how the Latin tongue got mixed up with the vulgar language of the Borussians, Lithuanians and Livonians we do not dare to say for certain.
156.6. Erasmus Stella says that Borussia was assaulted by the Romans, [but] not conquered [by them], taking Plinius as his source. From which it becomes clear that together with [the spreading of] the Roman Empire the Latin language cannot have spread and rooted here. But Duglossus tells us that in those civil wars between Cæsar and Pompeius a certain group or company of Romans left Italy, their native country in those troublesome times, settled down on these coasts, and built a city here called Romove after the name of their mother [city of] Rome, which city for a long time was the metropole of that country.
156.7. If this opinion of Duglossus is true, we have reason to think (with some reservations, since there may always be a reason to doubt the truth in history), that that group of Romans, led by some captain named Libo, came to the sea coast near Frisches haff, towards the East, bordering on the Russians, driven to land there as they were either by tempestuous weather, or, being pursued by the conquerors, to have withdrawn themselves into these quarters for shelter against the raging tyranny of Cæsar's soldiers. And thus the Livones or Livonians have received their name and way of being called from that Libo.
156.8. Finally, extending their bounds further and spreading themselves in all directions, some were named Lithuanians by a name derived from the same [Libo], but much altered and corrupted, while others have still retained their ancient name of Prussi. Yet, also a great part of Pomerland [Pommern], and Culmischland and the outskirts of Michelaw, after they came under the jurisdiction of Prussia and under the command of the knights of the Holy Cross (Teutones Crucigeri) began to be called by the one name Prussia.
156.9. Yet indeed, [only] that part is properly and truly called Prussia which is contained within the rivers Weichsel, the Dribentz, the Ossa, the Nemen and the bay just mentioned and it is divided from Lithuania and Masovia by thick woods full of moors and bogs. So far Cromerus. I do not think it amiss also to write down here the ancient division of this country of Prussia into specific shires, as Caspar Henneberg has listed, whose words are the following:
156.10. Vidiuuto or, as he is called by some, Vidinitus, king of Borussia, in the year of Christ 573, when he was 116 years old, before he cast himself into a fire together with his brother Brutencribe as a sacrifice to his gods, divided his possessions to his sons as follows. He had, as is reported, 12 sons. The first was Lithpo, or as others called him Litalan, to whom he gave Lithuania the Lower, and made him king and sovereign of the rest, but he was rejected by his brothers because of his murder of Cribe, a bishop of them by that name.
156.11. Among the other eleven he divided the country of Prussia. Of these the first [son], called Zamo, obtained that region which after him to this day is called Sambia which has on its West and North the salt sea, on the East lake Curisch-haff and the river Deme, and on the South the river Pregel. It is an accepted view among them that he lived on mount Galtagarb. The second [son] Sudo got as his portion that part of the country where you now find Oletzo, Stradaun, Lick, part of the precincts or liberties of Iohansburg, Letzen, Angerburg and Insterburg.
156.12. It has on its East Lithuania, on its South Masovia and Galindia, on its North-West Barthonia, [and] on its North Sclavonia. This country they called, after his name, Sudavia. This name was utterly lost when this whole area was spoilt and laid waste by the knights of the Holy Cross, {not in 1587F{and therefore the later writers are totally ignorant whether this area was called Sudavia or not.
156.13. They do think it to have been in Sambia, where there is now a canton called DER SUDAWISCHE WINKEL ODER DER BRUSTER ORT, but they are wrong. For because of their treachery they were driven there by the knights of the Holy Cross}not in 1587F}. The third [son], Nadroo, settled between Sambia, Sclavonia and Barthonia, where there are many rivers, forests and vast wildernesses, called Nadrau. In this province you find Tapiaw, Taplaucken, Salaw, Georgenburg &c., strong and defensible castles. The fourth [son], Scalavoni had those places given to him which are on both sides of the river Memel (the old writers call it Cronon), and therefore his portion was called Schalavonia after his own name.
156.14. The fifth [son], Natango, got that part which he called Natangen. It has on its North side the river Pregel, and on its East Alla. The sixth [son], Bartho, enjoyed Barthonia, [or] Barthenland. It was divided into the greater and the lesser, and Plick Barthen, but now those divisions have been forgotten and are no longer used. The seventh [son], Galindo, [obtained] that area [extending] from Masovia to the river Alla and lake Spirding, which was named Galindia after him, and which contains many huge deserted areas. A large part of it belongs to the bishop of Varmia and is now considered to be part of Varmia.
156.15. The eighth [son], Varmoni, received as his portion the Varmia lying between the {1587F only{three}1587F only} countries Galindia, Natangia and Pogezamia. But since he did not continue to live long after his father['s death], this province soon lost that name again, and was named by the German name of Ermeland {after his wife Ermia. The ninth [son], Hoggo [received] a lordship which was separated from Varmia by the river Passerg [and] from Pomerania by the river Weseck and lake Drausen. It is now by the Germans called Hockerland, but by the Romans it is called Pogezania after Pogia, his daughter.
156.16. The tenth [son], Pomeso, got into the possession of Pomesania, named after him, bounded by the rivers Vistula, Wesecke [and] Ossa {not in 1584G3Add{or Mocra}not in 1584G3Add}. The eleventh [son], Chelmo received as his portion Culmigeria or Hulmigeria, a province lying between the rivers Vistula, {not in 1584G3Add{Mockra or}not in 1584G3Add} or Ossa and Dreventza, well furnished with castles and cities. Here is another shire worth remembering which they call Sossau. Also another, called Lobovia, belonging to the bishop of Culm. [Then there is] Huntaw, also a small province, but well inhabited.
156.17. There is also an island near Marienburg, enclosed by a bank or wall {not in 1587F{[made] by the knight[s] of the Holy Cross}not in 1587F} [to protect it] against inundations and the breaking in of the rivers Weichsel and Nogot, and it is called The greater isle Gros Werder. The lesser isle Das Kleine Werder, is in Pomerell near Dantzig. Finally, [there is] Mariana near Marienwerder, {not in 1584G3Add & 1588S{an island by that name}not in 1584G3Add & 1588S}, which is not inhabited but reserved for pasture and meadows, yearly yielding a great profit.
156.18. This author promises a specific treatise on Prussia with a further discussion on this map. {1592L{But see more about this in Guaginus' Sarmatian history}1592L}.
156.19. Amber, {not in 1584G3Add, 1587F & 1588S{the Romans call it Succinum and Electrum}not in 1584G3Add & 1588S}, the Germans Bernstein, Agstein}not in 1587F}, is found plentifully on the coast of this country, but nowhere else in the world, to the great gain and enrichment of this nation. Various authors have written about the nature and properties of this region, but no one better, in my judgement, than Andreas Aurifaber Vratislaviensis {1587F has instead{of Preslaw in Slesi}1587F instead}, in a specific publication written in Latin as well as in German}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1585F3Add, 1587F, 1588S & 1592L end here}.

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