Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 150

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S editions).

150.1. {1570L(AC){HUNGARY.
150.2. Hungaria (which was certainly named like that after the Hunni or Hungari, a people who came from Scythia {1608/1612I only{or Tartaria}1608/1612I only}, who now live there) contains almost all [of] the two Pannonies, {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{the countries of the Iaziges}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G} on the other side of the Danube, {1580/1589G & 1602G only{the Siebenbürger}1580/1589G & 1602G only} and the region of the Daci, {1606E only{now including Transsylvania, Walachria and Moldavia}1606E only}. In the South it begins at the river Drava, in the North it is bound by the Sarmatians {1606E only{of Europe,}1606E only} now called Poles, and the Goths whom we call Walachrians. In the West it has Austria, once the head of higher Pannonia, [and] in the East it is confined by Mysia which at this day they call Rhetiana {1608/1612I instead{Rascia}1608/1612I instead}.
150.3. The Danube, of all the rivers of Europe the greatest, runs through the middle of it, and so divides it into two parts, the Lower and the Farther [Hungary]. Lower Hungary is that [part] which was formerly the {1606E only{Upper and Lower}1606E only} Pannonies. This is separated from the Farther Hungary by the river Danube {1606E instead{Drava}1606E instead}, from Austria and Bayern by the foot of mountain range Cæcius {not in 1606E{as it was once called}not in 1606E}, from Slavonia by the Drava, [and] by [the river] Save from Bosnia and Rascia.
150.4. The main and chief city of this lower area is Buda, {1606E only{([as] they often call it)}1606E only}, the imperial seat of their kings. Other towns of great significance are Alba Regalis {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only(Stulweissenburg)}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}, famous for the coronation and tombs of their kings, then the metropole of Strigonium {1606E only{(Graun),}1606E only}, then the {1606E only{metropole and Arch-}1606E only}Bishops see Quinquecclesiæ {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{(Fünfkirchen}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}, {1606E only{(the Turks call it Petschau, a bishopric),}1606E only}, then Sopronium, Taurinum {1606E only{(the Germans call it Griechweissenburg, the Hungarians Nandor-Fejèrvàr, the Italians Belgrado)}1606E only}, Sabaria {1606E only{(Zombatel or Szombath hely),}1606E only} the place where St. Martinus was born, and Stridon {1606E only{(Strigna)}1606E only} the native town of St. Hieronymus.
150.5. It has many excellent rivers and two very famous lakes, Balaton and Fertou. Next to this part of lower Hungary, on the other side of the river Drava, is Slavonia, once a part of upper Pannonia lying between the rivers Save and Drava, although it extends far beyond the [river] Save as far as the river Huna (for that is how it is now called) where Croatia begins.
150.6. After that follows Dalmatia, which lies along the Adriatic coast, partly subject to the Turk[s], partly to the Venetian[s]. The smaller part is now under the king of Hungary. The inland country is inhabited by the Bosnians and the Rascians who in ancient times were called Upper Moesi. The main city of Slavonia is Zagrabia, [and] of Croatia it is now Bigontina, but in former days Fumium was its chief [city].
150.7. The FARTHER HUNGARY or Hungary beyond the Danube is separated from Moravia, Silesia, Polonia and Russia by the Carpathian mountains {1606E only{(now by the Germans called Schneeberg),}1606E only} which begin above Posonium {1606E only{(Presburg)}1606E only} and from there in long windings pass through this country until they end at the Euxine [Black] Sea {1606E only{or Mar maiore}1606E only} at that place where there is the country now called Maromarussia.
150.8. Other mountains and woods separate it from Transsylvania and Walachia transalpina, from that place bending towards Severinum, {1606E only{a city situated on the Danube}1606E only}. The river Tibiscus [Tisza], well provided with different sorts of fish, coming from the mountains of Maromarussia, runs through the middle part of Farther Hungary.
150.9. This Hungary has many excellent towns, [such] as {not in 1606E{in the North}not in 1606E} Posonium {1606E only{(Presburg),}1606E only} and Tirnavia {1606E only{(Dijru) in the West}1606E only} &c. In the South [there are] Colocia, Bachia, Szeged {1606E only{(Zeged)}1606E only} &c. Further [there are] beyond the river Tibiscus [Thisza] Varadinum, Debreczin &c., where there are also gold and silver mines. At Severin there are yet to be seen the remnants of a bridge, ordered to be built a long time ago by Traianus the emperor, and other towns and things worth remembering, which the limited space in our discussion forces me to omit.
150.10. The inhabitants speak the Scythian language, a tongue very different from any language spoken by any of their neighbours around them. It is inferior to no country in the world as regards valiant and stout men, herds of cattle, fertility of the soil and rich veins of metal. And for the temperature of its air, [and its] wholesome and pleasant location, it may justly be preferred to any [country] in the world {1606E instead{that I know}1606E instead} whatsoever.
150.11. For the earth is plentifully provided by nature with all kinds of necessary and commodious things: gold, silver, salt, precious stones, [and] minerals for colouring are here dug up in great abundance. It yields a lot of corn, food for cattle, vegetables, apples {1606E & 1608/1612I only{and [other] fruits of various sorts}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. They have many rivers full of fresh fish. They [also] have great quantities of copper.
150.12. In most of their rivers they find certain traces of the best and finest gold; yes, even from their vines (such is the nature of this golden soil) they extract quantities of gold.
150.13. This we have collected from the small booklet by Stephanus Broderith and [from] the Decades on Hungary written by Antonius Bonfinius, to whom the studious reader may have recourse. Let him also read {1579L, not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{Herbersteins Commentaries on Moscovy, [as also]}1579L, not in 1580/1589G & 1602G} Matthias á Michou the Sarmatian, {1573L{and Cuspinianus'}1573L} {1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{in his Oration Protreptica}1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, {1573L{and [also] his Austria,}1573L} and Münster, {1588S, not in 1602G{and particularly the abridgement of the histories of Hungary written by Peter Ranzanus}1588S}, {1592L{who, among other strange wonders which he lists about this country, says, {1606E only{if you are willing to believe him}1606E only}, that he has seen many golden branches and twigs of vines, some as long as ones finger, others half a foot long}1592L, not in 1602G}. George Wernher has written a small work about the strange waters of Hungary}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.{1608/1612I only{Finally [read] the history about the siege of Györ, and the defeat of Canisa, which concerns all of Hungary, with all its regions, but particularly those that are beyond the rivers Danube, Drava and Mur, [by] Philippo Pigafetta, with its two lakes, its capital city, and the strongholds which can be found along the border}1608/1612I only}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F and 1598/1610/1613D editions:

150.14. {1571/1573D{Hungary.
150.15. Hungary was once called Lower Pannonia, (according to some), and hence its inhabitants were called Pannones. These have been expelled by the Goths. After the Goths, the Huns or Huyns, who have their origin in Scythia, took possession of it. After that the Longobards. But the Huns recaptured it from them. And these have remained there until the present day, and have given this country its name.
150.16. The river Danube traverses this country, and divides it into two parts. After which this part is called Hungary below the Danube and that part Hungary above the Danube. In this [lower] part Buda is situated, the capital where the kings (before the Turks took possession of it) had their seat. This was a wonderful and pleasant city (as Georgius Wernher writes), because of its splendid location, clean air, and fertile fields, so that he concludes that there is hardly a city in Europe that is equal to it, because it has so many royal buildings, and such an abundance of all kinds of things bringing splendour and pleasure, that it was a wonder.
150.17. Then there is Stulweissenburg, where the kings are crowned, and where many have been buried. Then Gran, an archbishopric, Raab, Strido where the renowned St. Hieronymus was born and many others. It has two large lakes, Balaton and Fertou. Hungary beyond the Danube is divided into two parts by the river Tibiscus [Thisza], teeming with fish. Here are the following cities: Presburg, Tirnau, Colocza, Szeged, Varadin, Debreczin, &c. Further Severin on the Danube, which still shows the ruins or dilapidated remains of a wonderful stone bridge, which Trajanus ordered to be built across the river, but which was destroyed by Hadrianus, the emperor who succeeded him. And more other cities, too many to mention here.
150.18. To this kingdom of Hungary also belong Slavonia (or Windisch-land), Crabaten and Dalmatia which lies at the Venetian sea and of which one part now belongs to the Venetians, and the other to the Turks, so that the king of Hungary only has a small part of it. The capital of Slavonia is Zagreb. Of Crabaten the capital is Bigithon. The inhabitants of Hungary speak the Scythian language, which is very different from all the languages around it.
150.19. This Hungary is not inferior to any country in the world as regards strong and brave men, abundance of its animals, fertility of soil, nor in mines of all kinds of metal. Thus, in terms of its healthy air, and good properties of the land it is better than any other country (according to Bonfinius) of the world. It is a country provided with all gifts of nature. One digs here gold, silver, copper, precious stones, salt and various dyes. In some rivers one finds gold dust, yes, even pieces as large as chestnuts, hazelnuts or acorns, says Wernher.
150.20. Yes, it is miraculous to say, one finds in some places gold in the vineyards, that is, in those planted in the mountains or the fields which have gold mines underneath. Here grows such noble wine, that it may be compared to malvesey [strong wine from Crete] (so it seems to us). It is so full of game that nobody forbids the hunting of hares, deer, pheasants, partridges (otherwise the joy of noblemen), but which here is daily fare for farmers and commoners. All kinds of fruits abound here. It is so full of oxen and sheep that its feeds almost all of Lombardy with them. In Vienna alone yearly more than 80,000 oxen are passing through, which are exported from there to various parts of Germany.
150.21. Truly, with great admiration we ourselves have seen the multitude of animals which are sold once a week by heydocks outside the city of Vienna, fields which cannot be surveyed, all filled with their cattle. Heydocks they call there the kind of people who come from Hungary with this cattle, strong people who can withstand poverty. They are with their animals in the field day and night, and sleep in carts they bring with them. They have a leather bag hanging over their shoulder under their arm, which contains their food. Their high shoes are made of ox-hide, with the hair on the outside, which they wrap around their legs, and they tie them to their legs in such a manner that it resembles a tied bag, and when the strings are worn out, they will remove them and replace them by new ones of the same material and shape.
150.22. For whoever has not seen it, it is truly incredible how much fish they have. The river Tibiscus (called Teissa [Tisza] by the inhabitants), as their saying goes, is filled for two thirds with water, and for one third with fish. Not that this is entirely true, but they want to demonstrate in this way how incredible an amount of fish there is. Whoever walks along the bank of this river, particularly on a hot summer day, has the strong impression of smelling fish all the time. To summarise, the waters of this land are so full of fish that they cannot be sold there, yes, hardly anyone can be found who would show gratitude for being given some fish. Read more about this country in Bonfinius, Broderith and Wernherus}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F and 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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