Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 106

Text, scholarly version, closely resembling that of Ort105, translated from the 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition:

106.1. {1592L{AUSTRIA.

106.2. GEORG RITHMAYER in his Abridgement of the situation of the world describes Austria under the name Pannonia the higher in these words: Pannonia the higher, (he says), towards the East borders on the river Leitha. Ptolemĉus declares the river Ràb as its Eastern border. On the West it is bounded by the river Enns, and by Noricum {1606E only{which is a part of Bayern}1606E only}. Some set its limit on that side at the mountain Cœtius {1602G has instead{Kahlenberg}1602G instead}; on the North [it is bounded] by the river Thaya and the country of Moravia, for it extends on this side as far as that now. On the South {1602G has instead{West}1602G instead} side it is confined by the mountains of Steyr.
106.3. The soil is good and fertile for all kinds of corn, and can be manured and tilled without difficulties. In that part which is beyond the Danube, named Markfeld, where a long time ago the Chetauri and the Parmecampi lived, the farmer ploughs his land with one poor old horse only. Manure, without which their land in Bayern is lean and barren, is something of which the farmers of Austria do not know the meaning. They produce such good saffron that none in the whole world may be compared to it. It produces wine which is fairly wholesome and agreeable to the nature of man. {1595L, not in 1602G{Althamerus, on the authority of Cornelius Tacitus' Germania writes that it produces plenty of ginger on a mountain near the town of Hamburg in the middle of Austria and Pannonia}1595L, not in 1602G}.
106.4. It has many ancient and famous cities, those of most importance being Steyr, Vadenhoff, Melk, Castel, anciently called Claudonium, Krems, Cetro, a castle now called Zeiselmauer, Saint Hippolytus, [and] the two Neuburgs, one surnamed after the abbey, the other after corn. Petronella, a village now, but formerly a great city, as its foundations, ruins and rubbish testify. The new city of Bruck on the bank of the river Leitha and Hamburg, but the most famous of all is Vienna, once called Flaviana, and [also] Juliobona, renowned for its university and school. No [place] has brought forth better and greater mathematicians. The city is surrounded by vineyards. The houses of its citizens are stately and beautiful, so that they are fit to provide entertainment for princes, and are built with large and open windows to let the air in and out. And therefore they are never afflicted and offended by stale and bad air, and every private house has its own specific courtyard or backside. Here gather many [people from] foreign nations from all countries {1606E only{of Europe}1606E only}. Here is great plenty of all kinds of provisions necessary for the maintenance of man's life.
106.5. The rivers of Austria are [the] Danube, once the utmost border of the region, but now running through the middle of it, Enns, Traunus, Erlauf which at Zell {1606E only(or Zelltal}1606E only}, famous for its church of the Virgin Mary) issues from a most pleasant lake, [then] Drau, Ypff, Melk, Mark and the Thaya which separates Moravia from Austria. {1606E only has instead:{The following [rivers] separate Moravia from Austria:}1606E only}. {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S[Then the] Kamb, a river noted for its various sorts of fish}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, the Leytha in which there are crabs of a most pleasant taste, and the Schwechat. So far for Rithmayer.
106.6. About the origins and etymology of the name of this country, Lazius reports as follows in his Commentaries on Vienna. The name of Austria (he says) was recently invented, about four hundred years ago, after the blasts, I think, of the South wind called Auster {1606E{by the Romans}1606E}, which wind often blows in this country, {not in 1606E{which I can believe}not in 1606E}. Or else after the similitude with the German name (which I think to be more likely) which the kings of the Franks used for the Eastern border of their kingdoms, OSTENRICH [realm of the East], like they called the Western part WESTENRICH [realm of the West].
106.7. Long ago, this region was first governed by marquises, then by dukes, and finally by archdukes, to whom it is now subjected. More about this in the Commentaries of Lazius just mentioned. The ancient coat of arms of this country consisted of five golden larks in a field of azure, but Lupold the marquis, the fifth of that name, because of an accident that happened to him, was permitted by the emperor to alter his coat arms to display a field of red with a cross bar in silver, because in the siege and assault on Ptolemaidos {1606E instead{on Accon}1606E instead} he was entirely covered with blood, except his [silver] girdle only. You may read more about this in Münster and Cuspinianus. A description of Austria can be found in Bonfinius at the end of his fourth book, fourth decade, of his history of Hungary. Pius the second in his description of Europe refers to a history he has written about this country, which so far we never had a chance to see. The same author has in his Epistles excellently described Vienna {1606E only{or Wien}1606E only}, the chief city of this province}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions, which closely resemble the vernacular text version of Ort105:

106.8. {1598F{Austria

106.9. PIUS the second, pope of Rome, says in his book on Europe that he has written a separate book about this country of Austria, but we have never seen it, or spoken to anyone who has. Otherwise, we might have taken recourse to that work to provide a dignified description about this country, but that is something we cannot do, yet, we will according to our capacities relate briefly what we do know.
106.10. This country used to be comprised under the name Pannonia Superor and Noricum. In the South it borders on the land of Steyr-mark, in the West on Bavaria, it has Moravia to its North, and its Eastern border is Hungary. It is also the utmost German region towards the East, for which reason it used to be a Mark- or Borderland-dukedom, (for Mark in German means as much as borderline post) because it was the utmost Mark. Later, it was appointed an arch-dukedom, whose dukes have now for almost two-hundred years been subject to the Roman Catholic kings and emperors, so that the electors seem to have become hereditary for this nobility of Austria. This arch-dukedom comprises Tirol, Steyrmark, Kernten and Cilien as well.
106.11. It is an exceedingly fertile country for all that humans need, and produces so much that it also provides for adjacent areas. It yields much salt and saffron, and such an abundance of wine, that the inhabitants may not stock or drink beer without a permit. As a result there is the saying: No country is like Austria. It has no mines for gold or silver, but these are not indispensible for human nature, although its desire to possess it cannot be erased.
106.12. The river Danube crosses this country, which river provides much fish for this country. Here in this river Danube they catch a kind of fish called Hausen because of their large size, which makes them seem like small houses. These are fishes without any bones and very fat and bacon-like, and hard to digest by those who have a weak stomach Aventinus writes that the ancients in Latin used to call them Siluros, and Bellon writes in his Book about Fish that in Flemish they are called bollink, which (having tasted both) cannot be correct in my view, because they differ too much in taste, size and character, our bollinck {1598F only{or Merleu}1598F only} having bones like other fish do, and hardly growing larger than one and a half [hand]spans
106.13. The cities of this country are Linz, Wels, Krems, Pochlarn, Tulln, Steyr, Neustad and some others, but especially the capital Vienna, situated upon the river Danube, of great renown because of its resistance against the Turks in 1526. Since this time, (at the expense of the entire Roman Catholic Empire) it has been fortified so strongly with walls, bulwarks, strongholds and moats that (as we think) it is now the strongest city of all German countries.
106.14. It is a city full of people of all kinds of trades and merchandise, and abundant in whatever humans need. It is also well provided with gorgeous houses and churches, among which St. Stephen is the main church, with an admirably high and beautiful steeple, which they started building in 1340, and which was finished in the year 1400, thus taking 60 years to be built, and its height (as Cuspinianus writes) is 480 feet. He says that the one of Strassbourg is 16 {1598/1610/1613D has instead{18}1598/1610/1613D instead} feet higher. But Münster says that the steeple of Strassbourg is 574 feet high, which would make it exceed the steeple of Vienna by 94 feet. The steeple of Antwerp has a height, measured from the lowest supporting stone to the highest concluding stone, of 451 feet and a half, on top of which you find the cross with a weathercock of 15 feet. But whether the feet of these different cities have the same measure when compared with each other or not, and how much they may differ, is something we cannot say}1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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