Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 1

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1571D, 1572/1573G, 1573L(AB), 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1581F and 1584L editions; we present the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580G & 1584L texts:

1.1. {1570L(A){THE WHOLE WORLD

1.2. This map contains and represents the portrait of the whole world and the main oceans which surround it. This earthly globe was divided by the Ancients (who were then not yet acquainted with the New World) into three parts, namely Africa, Europe and Asia. But since the discovery of America, those of our age have made that the fourth part, and the continent under the South Pole is expected to be the fifth part.
1.3. Gerard Mercator, the prince of geographers of our time, in his never sufficiently recommended universal table or map of the whole world, divides the entire earth into three parts: the first is that which the ancients divided into three parts and upon which the Holy Script bears the records that mankind originated there; the second is what now is called America or the {not in 1580/1589G{West}not in 1580/1589G} Indies; for the third, he designates a southern continent, which some call Magellanica, as yet with coasts largely unexplored.
1.4. That this earthly globe measures, where it is largest, 5400 German or 21600 {1580/1589G has instead{216000}1580/1589G instead} Italian miles, has been demonstrated in antiquity, and recent writers have supported these opinions. And these regions of the world (says Plinius in the second book of his Natural History) or rather, as many have called them, the centre of the world, (for so small is the earth in comparison to the whole framework of the universe), this is the seat of our glory. Here we enjoy honours, here we exercise authority, here we hunt after riches, here men live in turmoil, here we maintain civil wars, and make more room on earth by mutual slaughter.
1.5. And to bring about the public outcries in the world, this is where we force our neighbours to make place for us and thus remove them, and where we encroach by stealth upon our neighbours' land. Like he extends his lands and lordships farthest, and cannot tolerate that anyone should settle here. How small a portion of earth does that person enjoy? Or when through his avarice he has stuffed his body to the full, how shall his dead body {1580/1589G only{occupying no more than seven feet}1580/1589G only} maintain possession of it all?. So far [Plinius].
1.6. The situation of this earth and seas, the disposition of its various regions, with their inlets and gulfs, the manners of its people, and other memorable matters have been described by men of former times, such as the following: [in two columns]

1.8. C. PLINIVS SECVNDVS in books 3,4,5 and 6 of his Natural History.
1.9. {1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)ARISTOTELES, DE MVNDO [About the World], dedicated to Alexander the Great}1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)}.
1.10. STRABO in 17 books;
1.13. DIONYSVS APHER and his commentator,
1.15. APVLEIVS in his book about the world;
1.16. DIODORVS SICVLVS in book five about priorities of the Library;
1.18. PAULVS OROSIVS in the beginning of his history;
1.19. BEROSVS who described the antiquities of the world,
1.20. ANTONINVS {1579L(B) and 1584L have instead{ANTONIVS}1579L(B) & 1584L instead}AVGVSTVS (if indeed he was august) in his Itineraria [travels],
1.21. STEPHANVS in his cities,
1.22. VIBIVS SEQUESTER provided, in alphabetical order, the rivers, springs, swamps, woods, mountains and nations on it,

1.23. Descriptions by modern writers such as:

1.25. ABILFEDEA ISMAEL in the Arab language,
1.27. {1573L(AB){BARTHOLINVS, Book 8, on Austria}1573L(AB)}
1.29. ANTONINVS {1580G instead{Antonius}1580G instead}, the Archbishop of Florence, in his History, first title, third chapter,
1.31. IOANNES AVENTINVS in the second book of his Bavarian Annals,
1.32. [here second column in 1570(AC)]IOANNES CAMERS in his Commentaries on Solinus,
[here second column starts in 1570L(B) and 1571L]
[here second column starts in 1573L(AB), 1575L & 1579L(AB)]
1.38. GVALTERVS LVDOVICVS in his Mirror of the World,
[here second column starts in 1584L]
1.39. {1570L(B, not in 1570L(C)){ISIDORVS HISPALENSIS,
1.40. MICHAEL VILLANOVANVS in his commentary on Ptolemæus}1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)}.
1.41. ZACHARIAS LILIVS VICENT.{1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB)& 1580G only{in his Situation of the World,}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB) & 1580G only},
[here second column starts in 1580G]
1.42. {1573L(AB) HIERONYMVS GIRAVA in the Spanish language}1573L(AB)},
1.43. ALEXANDER CITOLINVS, in his Typocosmia {1573L(AB){in the Italian language}1573L(AB)},
1.44. VINCENTIVS GALLVS in the second book of the Mirror of Histories,
1.46. {1570L(ABC) & 1571L only{HARTMANNVS SCHEDEL's map in Chronicle of times}1570L(ABC) & 1571L only},
1.47. IOANNES MANDEVILIVS and his companions,
1.48. ODERICVS of Friuli,
1.49. GAVDENTIVS MERVLA in the 5th book of his Memorabilium [Matters to be remembered],
1.50. FRANCISCVS MONACHI, in his epistle to the Archbishop of Panormus [Palermo],
{1579L(AB){ANDREAS THEVETVS in French}1579L(AB)}, {1584L{FRANCISCVS BELLEFORESTIVS & PETRVS HEINSIVS, but now also in German,
LAVRENTIVS ANANIENSIS, in a sermon in Italian}1584L}
1.51. ANTONIVS PINETVS, in French, and he has set forth many tables and maps (as the title shows) of countries, cities and towns, of Europe, Africa, Asia and America,
1.52. IVLIVS BALLINVS has put forward drafts of the most famous cities of the whole world, with a brief historical discourse, written in Italian. {1573L(AB){even better}1573L(AB),
1.53. {1573L(AB){GEORGIUS BRVNO, in Latin, but much more beautifully and curiously}1573L(AB)},
1.54. BENEDICTVS BORDONIVS has described all the islands of the world, (1575L{as has also:
1.55. THOMAS PORCACCIVS, both in Italian}1575L},
1.56. {1570L(B), not in 1570L(C){WOLFGANG LAZIVS, &
1.57. IOANNES GOROPIVS BECANVS, the origin and wanderings of the nations of the world}1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)},
1.59. BARTH.[OLOMÆVS] AMANTIVS has gathered ancient inscriptions,
1.60. IOANNES BOHEMVS, {1570L(B), not in 1570L(C) and ALEXANDER SARDVS {1579L(B) has instead{SERDVS}1579L(B) instead}1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)} wrote about the manners and customs of all nations and their people, {1573L(AB){The same has
1.61. FRANCISCVS BELLEFORESTIVS done in the French language}1573L(AB)}.

Since the text of the vernacular 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French and 1581 French editions differ considerably from the text given above, a separate translation is provided below:

1.62. {1571D{The entire world.

1.63. This map shows the entire earth and the seas surrounding and traversing it. Nowadays, it is divided into five parts, called Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Magellana. About the last part very little is known, as ships have hardly explored it as yet. Europe is the name of the part which for a long time has been the seat of Christianity. It is surrounded by the sea except for the part adjacent to Asia, where the river Tanais [Don] constitutes the border, and further the line which you have to imagine connecting the source of this river with the Northern sea near the harbour of St. Niclæs, which the English nowadays reach by ship for trade.
1.64. Asia is also surrounded by the sea except where it joins Europe, as just mentioned, and Asia is also, as you can see on the map, with a small piece of land connected to Africa, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, between the land of the Jews and Egypt. Africa would also be an island, if it were not connected to Asia by the narrow piece of land just mentioned.
1.65. About America it is as yet unknown whether it is on all sides surrounded by the sea or whether it is connected to Asia (although we present it as an island, thus following the best geographer of our time, Gerard Mercator). Then we have the fifth part, located down under at the South Pole called Magellana about which we cannot say much, since it has only been seen at two or three places, such as at the Magellan straights, there where it is called Terra del Fuego [Land of Fire] and concerning New Guinea (which is supposed to be a part of it as well) etc.
1.66. And because every part of the world will have its own map as well in this book, and will be discussed at some length, we will therefore refrain from discussing those here, and restrict ourselves to the seas, since together with the land they constitute the entire globe. Before us (as we think) nobody has planned and endeavoured to do this.
1.67. The first thing one has to know is that the sea, just like the land, also has various different names which it derives from the lands to which it is adjacent. Thus, one speaks of the Spanish, Indian, or Venetian sea, etc, or alternatively named after its orientation as Northern, or Eastern sea. The sea located between Europe, Africa and Asia is called the Midland or Mediterranean sea, because it finds itself between those three parts of the world.
1.68. Seas are also named after their colour. For instance, the Red Sea near Arabia which does not have a red colour, but is called like that after its red sands, as described by Jan de Barros in his book on Asia, based on his meticulous observations and judgment. There is another sea near New Spain in America called by the Spanish Mar Vermejo (which means Red Sea), because it is similar to the other Red Sea, (as asserted by Hieronymus Girava). The sea north of Constantinople which the Italians call Mar Magiore is by the Turks called the Black Sea.
1.69. It is also sometimes called after some history which happened there in the sea or around it. Like happens with the sea between Spain and the Canary islands located more Westwards, because as a result of storms so many mares and other animals of burden drowned near these islands (in the time when these islands had just been discovered and these animals were brought there for breeding, the islands being devoid of such animals) that as a result it was called Golfo de las yeguas, that is Horses Sea, etc.
1.70. Ebb and tide in the seas is not the same everywhere. In our regions high tide occurs at full moon, but in India (as Vartoman says), at the waning of the moon. In our regions the water reaches a marvellous height, as also in the North Sea, and similarly at Cambaia in India and in Africa around Rio Grande. We see the same thing in the Great Sea between America and the Moluccas and New Guinea, a sea called del Zur. But the situation is quite different in the Mediterranean sea or the big sea between Europe and Africa on the one hand, and America on the other (excepting the Rio Grande as mentioned), called Mar del Nort by the Spanish.
1.71. Also, at the Isle of St. Thomas the water rises so moderately that it can hardly be noticed. And what is most remarkable, the sea near Cabo Rosso in Africa rises for four hours, but falls for eight hours. Also, the sea always runs in the same direction along the North coasts of America, and along the isle of Spagnola it always runs Westwards, as is also the case in the sea we called Mar Magiore before, and again as happens in the Archipelago and in the Eastern {not in 1572/1574F & 1581F{or Finnish}not in 1572/1574 & 1581F} sea, although the water does not run so fast there.
1.72. Some are of the opinion that beneath the polar star the waters go down as if they rush into an abyss and disappear, and never surface again. In some places the sea water tastes sweet, as often happens at shores where large rivers empty themselves with a strong current into that sea, but this is also true for the entire sea in the North, Plinius called it Scithicum, if we may believe him.
1.73. There is also variation in depth, because the Mediterranean sea is deeper than the ocean surrounding the entire world, and deepest around the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. The Red Sea is so shallow that it cannot be sailed at night. The oceans del Nort and del Zur mentioned before are in some places for hundreds of miles covered so densely with a green weed that it seems that ships there do not seem to cross through water but rather through luxurious green meadows.
1.74. The sea is also, (like the land), at some places more fertile than at others. For it happens, (as some report who cross the sea between Spain and the new countries of America), that sailing for hundreds of miles, not a single fish is caught, whereas passing along other places, so much fish can be found that the sea seems packed with them.
1.75. Mister Wind, called Eolus, also displays a strange behaviour at sea. In our sea, he is so unpredictable that one can hardly count on him. Elsewhere, he is so reliable that you hardly need to rise from your chair, as for instance in the Indian sea where, when one travels from Calicut to the Moluccas, the wind will continue to blow from June to October Eastwards, and the next six months always Westwards. In Brazil at the Rio de la Plata it tends to blow Eastwards all year long.
1.76. Nature seems to enjoy itself in the watery element to make counterparts of almost all the animals which you see on land, as we also find in it quadrupeds like elephants, pigs, tortoises, dogs, calves, horses etc. Similarly for birds we find the sea-falcon, volador (or sea swallow), etc. And additionally you find all kinds of mussels etc. And that you would also find some creature resembling a human being, the sea also produced sea knights and mermaids, although by some considered as imaginary or fabulous, yet by many ancients and modern authors, observed at various times and places), these are considered to be real, existing creatures. And whoever wants to see one, can go to Briel in Holland, and there, in a village called Swartewael [Black Whale], one can behold one, hanging in the church, in dried form.
1.77. Next, the sea grows various herbs and plants, such as coral, pearls, amber, aghats, sponges and many other things which may serve mankind for pleasure and necessity, so that it seems that humanity is not truly forgotten anywhere. But if we should want to describe all the strange things and peculiarities brought forth by seas, lakes, rivers, fountains and other waters, we would need a separate book for that, whereas we only shortly wanted to mention them here}1571D}.

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