Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 83

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish editions:

83.1. {1592L{EAST FRIESLAND.

83.2. Nobody, I think, doubts {not in 1602G{that the Cauchi, and}not in 1602G}{1602G only{but the tribes who live around the duchy of Lünenburg an the bishopric of Bremen, called Cauchi}1602G only} not the Frisij inhabited this region in former times. Next to Strabo, Dion, Suetonius, Paterculus, and Æl. Spartianus, you will also find this in Ptolemæus (who distinguishes between the Greater and the Lesser) {not in 1606E{and also Plinius}not in 1606E}. Ptolemæus puts the Greater Gauchi between the rivers Weser and Elbe, the Lesser between the rivers Eems and Weser where now these Frieslanders which we call East-Frieslanders dwell. Of the Cauchi, Plinius in the first Chapter of his sixteenth book [line 1-3] speaks like this: in the North we have seen, he says, the country of the Cauchi, the Greater and the Lesser, (as they are termed), {1606E only{altogether void of wood and trees}1606E only}.
83.3. For through a huge inlet there, twice every day and night by the tides, the sea runs in, confusedly covering whatever the earth in general brings forth, leaving it unclear what is sea and what is land. There, the innocent, distressed people get themselves to the tops of high hills, or mounds they have raised, by the labour and industry of man {not in 1602G{(according to the height of the highest tide, as they find out by experience)}not in 1602G} and on those they build their poor cottages, where they dwell like sailors floating on the water when the flowing ocean surrounds them. Or like those who have suffered shipwreck, when the waters, ebbing, retreat again. And then they come out, to fish around their cabins, {1606E only{observing that the fish follow the tide}1606E only}.
83.4. They have no cattle, and do not live on milk, and dairy products as their neighbours do. They hunt no wild animals, being far from any shrubs where they might hide. Of marshy plants {1606E instead{Reike, a kind of seaweed, and}1606E instead} reeds growing in the washes and boggy places they twist cords, of which they make their fishing nets. And taking up a kind of muddy earth with their hands, drying it with the wind,rather than with the sun, they use it for fuel to cook their meat, and to heat their limbs, stiff as they are with the cold blasts of the Northern winds.
83.5. They have no other drink than rain water, which they collect and keep in ditches in the porches of their houses. If these nations today would be conquered by the Romans, they would consider that as slavery. That is the way it is, fortune is favourable to some to their own detriment and hindrance. Thus Plinius writes about these people.
83.6. He is surprised, or rather annoyed, that they prefer freedom above the tyrannous rule of the Romans. Or rather, he envies them for remaining free from this yoke. But it is no wonder that people who enjoy liberty try to maintain it even if their life is then at stake, for not only human beings, but even wild animals love freedom above anything else in the world.
83.7. {not in 1598F{Oh Plinius, you who yourself highly recommend it above anything else, you who persuade us to preserve it with the utmost efforts of our life, and affirm it worthy to be desired and preferred not only in man, but even for wild animals, above anything the world}not in 1598F}.
83.8. This country was in former times divided into many seigniories, which were each governed by their own specific princes, even up to the time of Fredericus the third, emperor of Rome. who gave this whole country to a certain Ulrich and appointed him count of it, in the year after Christ's birth 1465.
83.9. The soil of this land is so rich in all it needs, that it seems to be in no great need of help from neighbouring countries. It abounds plentifully with various things, as horses, oxen, cattle, hogs, wool, butter, cheese, barley, oats, wheat, beans, peas and salt, commodities that from here they every year send in great quantities to foreign countries. This county has only two walled cities, namely Emden and Aurich. Of these, EMDEN, situated at the mouth of the river Eems, the general market town of the whole province for merchants to gather, is particularly famous because of its accessibility and its harbour, which thrusts itself so far into the heart of the city, so wide and deep, that it easily receives and accommodates big ships, fully loaded, in full sail, into it very centre.
83.10. The city is highly beautified by the sumptuous palace of the prince, a splendid church, the guild hall, and the splendid houses of the private citizens. AURICH, because of the woods and groves which surround it, is inhabited mostly by gentlemen and noblemen. Here they recreate and enjoy hawking and hunting. Within the realm of this city there is, {not in 1598F & 1602G{as Kempius reports, a place called locus Iyl [Spanish texts have: Tyl], surrounded by a wall, full of bushes, and a commodious place for hares and deer, in which {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{as in a zoo}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} they keep a great number of these animals, which no one may take or there will be a severe penalty. They are reserved for the count's amusement and pastime, when he likes to divert himself by hunting.
83.11. Within the bounds of this same city Aurich there is a little hill rising to some height (commonly called Obstalsboom {1606E only{or Upstalsbom}1606 only} where the seat of justice or court for the whole area is held. Here they used to meet {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{twice per}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} year, coming from all the {not in 1606e{seven}not in 1606E} sea lands, in the open and wild fields, to discuss and resolve, with the help of the most skilful and qualified lawyers, such as best knew their customs and laws, all controversies arising between one person and the other}not in 1598F & 1602G}. In this area there are also various castles, villages and farms. Of hamlets and settlements there are so many that often one touches the other.
83.12. Most of these are so excellent, both as regards the beauty of their houses and streets, as also for the multitude of inhabitants and foreigners, that they may in honour and greatness contend with other cities of Germany.
83.13. The people occupy themselves with trade as merchants, or make a living by jobs and handicraft, or by being farmers and tilling the soil. With their neighbours and foreigners they speak in the German language, whereas among themselves they use a peculiar language, belonging to that nation and not understood by foreigners. They are nicely dressed, even the simplest country people, so that one would take them to be citizens. The women wear a kind of clothing which differs much from that of other nations. They tie all the hair on their head into one strain, which they allow to hang free on their back, embellishing it with various silver objects and guilded spangles.
83.14. They cover their head in summer with a cloth of silk of a red colour, ornated with silver. But in winter they wear a green cloth which covers the head in such a manner that you can just see their eyes. This kind of attire they call a Hatte. The upper garment {1606E only{(huick or loose gown)}1606E only} which they wear outside is from the top to the bottom equipped with many small plaits, and stands so stiff with {not in 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S{eleven}not in 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S} silver and guilded wire or plates that when it is taken off, it will stand upright [by itself]. This is sometimes made of red cloth, sometimes of green cloth. In this country of East-Friesland there are also two other counties, one called Esens, the other Jever, after the name of their chief towns}1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1602G & 1608/1612I end here}. {1601L{About the situation in this province, its nature and the manners of its people, read Ubbo Emmius}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

8.15. (1598/1610/1613D{East Friesland.
8.16. It were not the Frisians but the Cauchi who lived in this area, as is generally known and these are also mentioned by those who describe the world, particularly Plinius, who distinguishes between the Greater and the Lesser Cauchi. This area was once divided into many seigniories ruled by separate princes, until the time of emperor Fredericus the Third, who appointed a certain Ulrich as count over this area in the year 1465.
8.17. The soil of this land is so rich of all necessities of life that it hardly needs help from other countries, yes, it has many things in such abundance, such as horses, oxen, pigs, wool, butter, cheese, barley, oats, corn, beans and peas that it provides a major part of it to foreign countries. East Friesland has two walled cities namely Emden and Aurich.
8.18. Emden is located at the mouth of the river Eems and is the merchant city of the whole area, renowned for its manifold trades,and splendid because of the location of its harbour, which extends all the way into the city with such depth that ships can enter it with full sails, loaded with all kinds of merchandise. The city is ornated with a lovely palace where the prince lives, a nice town hall and other houses of citizens that are very beautiful. Aurich is almost entirely populated by noblemen because of its woods and meadows which you find here and which allow jolly hunting.
8.19. In the area around this city, (as Kempius testifies) lies a place called Iyl, provided with walls and meadows, full of hares and deer where a lot of them are kept. They may not be caught by anyone without punishment, except by the count, who sometimes comes there for pleasure. In the same region near Aurich there is a hill called Obstalsboom where people from the seven sea-lands are used to gather twice a year to submit all questions and contentions of this realm to eminent experts.
8.20. There are quite a few castles and villages, and so many towns that one seems to touch the other, and most of them have been so beautified and the houses and streets are so pleasant that they may be compared to many of the best cities in Germany. Its inhabitants are merchants, or they excercise a craft or skill or they till the land. With foreigners and neighbouring people they speak German, but among themselves they use a specific language which is not understood by strangers.
8.21. Their clothes are splendid and no one will look down upon them because of the way they are dressed. The women have a specific way of dressing themselves. They carry all their hair in a plait hanging down their back, ornated with many silver buttons and spangles. In summer they wear a silk red cap, wrought with silver. In winter, they wear a cap of green linen which covers their head in such a manner that you can only see their eyes. This sort of attire they call Hatte. Their upper garment or tabbard runs from head to toe plaited in small folds, and it is so rigid with silver and guilded ornaments that it stands by itself when taken off.
8.22. This garment is made of red or green linen. In this East-Friesland you find two other counties, called Eses and Jever after their main cities}1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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