Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 48

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB) and 1580/1589G editions:

48.1. {1570L(ABC){Gallia Narbonensis and its coasts. {1580G instead{The duchy of Gallia Narbonensis which lies at the sea coast}1580G instead}.

48.2. The more famous places of this region are described by Guillaume Paradin with these words: it has been reported by the ancient writers that Arelate was a settlement of the Sextans. This city on the river Rhône is entirely surrounded by swamps where nowadays ferocious bovines roam. That it used to be an important market town becomes clear from the following remark of Strabo: Narbo, he says, the largest market town of the area, is located at the mouth of the river Ataxis and at lake Narbonensis. But on the Rhône there is a city, not a small market town, called Arelate.
48.3. Close to Arelate there are hot springs, at which Sextius built a city named after him, as the same Strabo informs us, called Aquas Sextias. The intention for founding this city was that it would form a centre of Roman government. As Hieronymus writes, the Cymbrians were slaughtered there by Marius. Arausia, nowadays Orange, used to be famous because of the power of the Cabilonenses. We have seen there for ourselves the ruins of an enormous amphitheatre and of a wall, erected from square stones, a marvellous feat of work, hardly having its equal anywhere in Gallia. At the gate looking towards Lyon there is a triumphal arch with a relief with cavalry which we inspected for a long time with great pleasure. In Nîmes too we visited the ancient amphitheatre (called Arena [sand]) and saw a wonderful tunnel which crossed under the river Rhône, going underneath its banks, leading to a distant place.
48.4. There is also the basilica of Plotina, built by emperor Hadrianus, as Spartianus and other sources testify. So far for Paradin. Ioannes Poldo Albenas has described this city very accurately, evoking images of antiquity; he has also researched most diligently the neighbouring places and their ancient names. See also Strabo, book 4. See also the poet Gunther Ligurinus. The source of this map has been drawn for us in manuscript by our good friend Mr. Carolus Clusius.

48.5. {no longer in 1579L(AB) and 1580G{The duchy of Burgundy.

48.6. Burgundy consists of two parts, one being called lower Burgundy, which is also called the royal residence. It used to be named a dukedom, once the seat of the Hedui; the other is called higher and imperial Burgundy, (as Marlianus says) and is now known as a duchy. It was once possessed by the Sequani. This is what our map shows. Although some say that it is not very fertile, yet it yields all kinds of food, such as corn for very low prices, and also wine and olive oil, and the same is true for meat and all other things which are needed for sustenance are plentiful, such that it seems like another Italy in terms of its location, the mildness of the air and wholesomeness.
48.7. The tall stature and physical beauty of these people is known to everyone. And they are no less famous for their virtue. Their metropolis is Besançon. But specific descriptions of its cities can be found in Cognatus Nozeremus. See also Paradinus, as well as Robertus Cœnalis}1570L(ABC), 1571L & 1573L(AB)end here}.

{1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L & 1579L(AB) {SABAVDIA}1573L(AB), 1574, 1575L, 1579L(AB)& 1580G:
48.8. {1573L(A) in small cursive font, 1573L(B) in non-cursive font, 1574L & 1575L, in small cursive script, in 1579L(AB) in regular font, 1580G in Gothic font{Sabaudia, {not in 1579L(AB) & 1580G{which is also shown on this map}not in 1579L(AB) & 1580G}, is a region on this side of the Alps, whose ruler, also called the duke of Sabaudia, also rules over the Pedemontana region, (as they call it). Its metropolis is Chambéry (once called Ciuaro, if we are to believe Cœnalis), in which a senate resides which they call their parliament. It is thought that this region derives its name from the Sebusiani, or from others who came from the Sabatis.
48.9. Bouillus adduces another origin for this name. He says that this region was once much smaller, (situated as it is amidst the Alps), and because of the low number of its inhabitants, it was totally occupied by crooks, who either killed the original inhabitants, or robbed them. When the nobility obtained this area from the emperor under the title of a duchy, they united their efforts with those of the original inhabitants and removed the crooks by force, and secured a safe passage for travellers.
48.10. Hence, they called their road Salvam Viam, the safe one, (which previously was the bad one, or vulgarly Maulvoie) from now on Saulvoye, or commonly Savoie, which in Latin is Sabaudia. So far for Carolus Bouillus. If it is a fable rather than true history, the proof remains with the author}1573L(AB) end here}. {1574L{Sapaudiae is certainly the word, even if it is not called like that in the Liber Notitiarum, for the regions of Gallia Narbonensis}1574L & 1575L end here}.
48.11. {1579L(AB){But allow me to add here also the description form the history by Paradinus as he has published it, which is the following: The region now called in Latin Sabaudia (vulgarly Savoie) was by the ancients called Allobrogum. It covers the entire area once occupied by the Sabbati, Ingauni, Intimeli, Hiconi, Tricori, Voconti, Leponti, Latobrigi, Medualli, Centrones, Catigores, Veragri, Nantuati, Salassi, Tharantasi, & Seduni. Nowadays these regions have different names, and as the indigenous people now call them, include the regions of Savoie, the duchy of Geneva, the marchionate of Susa, the duchy of Morienna, the dominion of Tharantaise, Brengeois, Foucigny, Chablais, Val de Oste, Païs de Vaul, de Geis, and some others.
48.12. The duchy of Sabaudia rules over the Pedemontana region, ornated with the title of principality, and also the region of Bressanensis, including the duchy of Varaz, Montreuil, Pont de Vaux, Bagey &c. On the basis of ancient monuments it is clear that this entire region was once a kingdom: in the times of Hannibal, who was made the arbiter by Broncus, his brother, concerning this region, he was able to solve the quarrels here, and he restored the rule of it to the original owner, who had been expelled by a younger person, as Livius tells us in book 21.
48.13. Betultum (or, as others read it, Bituitum) their king was captured by Quintus Fabius Maximus, as L. Florus writes. King Cottius (after which this part of the Alps is called Cottia) is remembered by various authors in the time of Emperor Augustus}1579L(AB) & 1580G end here}.

Vernacular version, derived from the 1571/1573 Dutch, the 1572/1573 German, the 1572/1574 French and the 1581 French editions:

48.14. {1571/1573D{Languedoc and Provence.

48.15. This map only shows the sea coast of the land of Languedoc and Provence. Languedoc is called as it is because where the other French say ouy for yes, these people say oc. Thus Languedoc simply means the language of oc. [note that according to this reasoning, it should mean: the language of yes or OK]. The main cities on this map are {not in 1572/1574F & 1581F{Lyon, a very ancient city, pleasantly located on the junction of two rivers, the Saône and the Rhône. It is a large merchant city}not in 1572/1574F & 1581F}. Marseille [is] an old harbour, built by the Greeks a long time ago. Arles on the Rhône was once a big merchant city, as Strabo writes.
48.16. Avignon, built at the same river, is a large and rich city, for some time the see of the popes. Nîmes is an old city with many ancient monuments, such as the amphitheatres or colloseums and temples, about which Ian Poldo has written an entire book, pleasant to read for those who love ancient structures. In Orange there is also an amphitheatre, and other antiquities, such as triumphal arches and the like.
48.17. Montpelliers has a well known university, renowned for its medicine and law all over Europe. Then there are Narbonne and other cities, as the reader will see on this map. Out of friendship, we obtained this small map from Carolus Clusius, doctor in medicine, who designed it on the spot.

48.18. {not in 1581F{Burgundy and}not in 1581F} Savoie.

48.19. {not in 1581F{Burgundy consists of two parts, the one is high-Burgundy, the other is lower-Burgundy, which is a duchy. High-Burgundy is a countship, which is depicted on this map. Its capital is Besançon, an old city and an archbishopric with a university. The inhabitants of this country are known to everyone because of their great courage, pious behaviour and fidelity to their king, as proved in peace and war}not in 1581F}.
48.20. The duchy of Savoie seems to be French because it is located on this side of the high mountain range, but it has its own lord, who is also lord of the region of Piemont. Its main city is Chambéry. Here they preserve and exhibit a worthy relic, namely the shroud of Lord Jesus Christ with which he was put into his grave, which we saw in the year 1560 in Vercelli, Piemont (to which it was transferred because of the war waged between the king of France and the duke of Savoie) in deep devotion, still showing the shape of his body with spots of blood. There are more other cities, such as Tarantaise, Moustiers, Monbelial etc.}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F end here}.
48.21. (1581F only{To Savoye also belongs the principality of Piedmont and the land of Bressau in which you find the duchies of Varaz, Montreuil, Pont de Vaulx, Bagey etc. Charles de Bouillon writes that once this province of Savoye, being entirely situated in the mountains, was only inhabited by robbers and criminals, who made the passage here very difficult and dangerous, for which reason it was called Malvoye [the bad road]. But afterwards a certain gentleman obtained it from the Emperor under the title of a duchy. And he removed these evil criminals and made it safe for travellers, and called it Saufvoye [the safe road]. This same country was in the times of Hannibal a kingdom, as you may read in Titus Livius and in I. Flores}1581F only, which ends here}.

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