Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 126

Text, one version only, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

126.1. {1608/1612I{Liguria{1609/1612L only{or the duchy of the Genoa republic}1609/1612L only}.

126.2. Liguria [Genua] is considered to be one of the most noble regions of Italy. Its name is supposed to have come from the people called Liguri, whose origin is described differently by the authors, but there is agreement among them that they are very ancient {1609/1612/1641S only{and the first inhabitants of Italy}1609/1612/1641S only}. Plinius in his 3rd book, on the authority of Augustus, writes that its coastline is at least 211 miles, extending from the river Var to the river Macra. In the West it is confined by the Alps which form the border of Italy, and in the East you find Toscana, in the South the [Ligurian] sea, and in the North the Apennine mountain range. By contemporary writers it is divided into two parts, Western and Eastern Genua, which derive their names from Genua {1609/1612L only{or Janua}1609/1612L only}, the most important city, especially noted for its ancient history and the glory of its citizens.
126.3. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Its region now comprises the entire coastal area from Monaco to Tuscany or Etruria}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. There are some who claim that the name of Janua originated from the first king of Italy, Janus, who would have founded it in the year after the world's creation 3692, and subsequently was enlarged by Janus, king of the Troyans, by extending the city area; in honour of the supposed founder, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{the first temple is said to have been erected here for the two-headed Janus, from whom it is supposed to have descended, and who gave the city his name}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Others believe that the name derives from Janua [door] {1609/1612L{(as it was called by the ancients)}1609/1612L} because it functioned as a door to all of Italy, which could be opened or closed}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
126.4. They embraced the faith of Jesus Christ in the year of our Lord 87, taught by the declarations of the saints Nazarius and Celsus, and in subsequent times they conserved it carefully and augmented it, so that a true divine service developed, and they took care of matters successfully. Whatever was the origin of the name, one thing is above any doubt: the city is very ancient and has been mentioned many years before the birth of Christ. This we conclude from a bronze plate {not in 1609/1612/1641S{which has been found in the valley of Ponsevara and which is now preserved by the city councillors}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, on which can be read that Consuls L. Cecilius and Q. Manutius have been sent by the senate to Janua as judges to decide about controversies between the Veturians and Januians concerning some valleys in the proximity and to liberate those who as a result of these controversies have been held captive in fetters by either party.
126.5. From this it can be understood that the city was not one of the least ones in those times, and had been inhabited a long time ago. The city is situated on the coast at an incline looking out onto the South, with its back toward the North and the mountains, from which it seems to descend into the valley. The city itself is not only situated in a plain, but also rises somewhat up into the mountains. Its circumference is six miles and it offers a beautiful panorama, as may be expected from the nicest of cities. Inside as well as outside its walls, proud steeples of churches rise up, honourable because of their relics and attributes of numerous saints, among which {1609/1612/1641S only{a fragment of the Holy Cross, the funeral shroud of our Redeemer and }1609/1612/1641S only} even the ashes of John the Baptist.
126.6. It also has various palaces, gorgeous to look at because of their elegant structures {1609/1612/1641S only{which are not equalled anywhere in Europe}1609/1612/1641S only}, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{The parcs are delightful for any kind of honourable pleasure, ornated with art, and truly admirable, distinguished by the great variety of fruits of all sorts}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Its piers protecting the harbour provide a safe docking place for ships, suitable for guarding any fleet, its height and grandeur, extending into the sea as a peninsula, pleasing for whoever casts his eye on it. In the year 1130 it has been honoured with the dignity of an archbishop's see by pope Innocentius the second {1609/1612/1641S only{and emperor Conrad granted to it the authority to coin money}1609/1612/1641S only}. It is replete with illustrious and noble families, worth to be mentioned with the titles of their dignities and their achievements.
126.7. The Genoans are mostly rather tall and strongly built, very ingenious, selfconscious and pride themselves in splendid achievements. They are full of energy, always busy, and prepared to initiate large undertakings, considering this to be a challenge, they are excellent in managing armed conflicts and in all their undertakings they excel because of their talent, zeal and their way of dealing with matters. They have a free republic and do not recognise the authority of any ruler. Once they contended for supremacy at sea, for in matters concerning the sea and ships, they were in no way inferior to any other nation, and they distinguished themselves by many great victories, and achieved such a position of power that they were feared by many nations, and extended their rule to the furthest borders of Asia, Africa and Europe, particularly in those parts of the Holy Land {1609/1612L instead{East}1609/1612L instead} East where they gave examples of their outstanding courage.
126.8. And as a result of their numerous and difficult expeditions in order to protect and extend the church and the Christian faith, they have developed immortal piety and strength, and also acquired precious emerald saucers without beakers as spoils, as well as memorable sacred vessels. In memory of their famous feats of war, a memory which is still alive, we can read a recently made and clear inscription that has been engraved in the sepulchre of our Saviour, with the immortal and laudatory words Mighty stronghold of the Genoans, executed in golden lettering precisely there where once they were visited by Balduino, then king of Jerusalem, and Dambertus the local patriarch.
126.9. But when they began to suffer from internal dissention and fractions, their former position of power seriously deteriorated, and nowadays they only retain the kingdom of Corsica, and five separate bishoprics. Also, the Ligurian coast is divided into six bishoprics, among which the municipality of Savona is distinguished by its age and nobility. Then they have the Isle of Capri (or of the goats) and finally a considerable part of the area of Lunigiana, where there is much to be seen, densely populated {1609/1612/1641S only{among which you have Albenga, Vintimiglia and Savona as the most ancient and noble ones}1609/1612/1641S only}, with all kinds of the best fruits growing there in abundance. {1609/1612/1641S only{and produces excellent wines, better than many others, olive oil in such quantities that it exports it to its neighbours, tasty meat, much fish, and much venison in Corsica, which formerly boasted 35 cities, of which now there are only five left, where life is very difficult because of the bad air, which has depopulated it. This is in contrast to Genova and its inlets, where the air is much more moderate and better}1609/1612/1641S only}.
126.10. Genua ranks high on the list of places with citizens of nobility, famous titles, and with those distinguished by their sanctity, dignity, arms and the study of literature. This resulted in five citizens being entered in the list of saints, eight popes in Rome excelling in their exceptional wisdom, strong character and piety, then 57 cardinals, one master of the Rhodes crusaders {not in 1609/1612L{leaving aside many other archbishop prelates}not in 1609/1612L}, two emperors, and countless men famous for their martial feats on land and at sea, including rulers of this most serene republic as well as others from the Christian world who achieved great victories on land and at sea, subduing many places by war, defeating emperors, beating in one battle two kings and making many noblemen their prisoners, resisting many very strong and powerful tribes, beating their armies decisively, and they also opened up the new world {1609/1612/1641S only{from where much gain has come to the catholic faith and the crown of Spain}1609/1612/1641S only}.
126.11. Nor did the private citizens of Genoa hesitate to take up their arms against mighty rulers and to challenge them to war in order to protect themselves against injustice of to avenge it. I would go to far to mention the names and feats of arms of all who were involved in this. If anyone would like to learn in detail about Genoese matters, let him read {1609/1612/1641S only{Titus Livius, Eutropius, Caffaro, Stella, Voraginus, Saulus, Facius, Spinola,}1609/1612/1641S only}, Bracellius, {1609/1612/1641S only{Dotia}1609/1612/1641S only}, Interianus, {1609/1612/1641S only{Fregoso, Senarega}1609/1612/1641S only}, Justinianus, Foglietta, Bizarus, Albertus, Platina, {1609/1612/1641S only{Leander}1609/1612/1641S only}, Corius, Iovius, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Sabellicus}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Pope Pius the second, Botero, {not in 1609/1612L{the learned canon}not in 1609/1612L} Aubertus Mirĉus, {1609/1612/1641S only{the Spanish Chronicles}1609/1612/1641S only} and other historians of repute}1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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