Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 92

Text, one version only, translated from the 1579/1580 Latin 2nd Add, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580G2Add, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1598 French & 1602 German editions:

92.1. {1579/1580L2Add{HASSIA.

92.2. The country of Hessen, which was once a duchy, and is now graced with the title of a landgraviate, was formerly possessed by the Catti, {1580G2Add{as almost all writers of our time generally and truly believe}1580G2Add}. Only Albertus Crantzius is of a different opinion, for he believes that these Catti were those people who are now called Saxones. This province has on its East Thüringen, on its South Frankenland, on its West Westfalen, and on its North the duke of Brunswick [and] the bishop of Minden, and other princes as its near neighbours.
92.3. It is a country very fertile in all manner of things necessary for the maintenance of mans life. It has no vines, except on that side which borders on the Rhine. Marburg and Kassel are the chief and principal cities of this country. The latter [city] is adorned with the princes court. The other [city] is graced with an excellent university. In this landgraviate there are also various other countships, [such] as Katzenelnbogen, Ziegenheim, Nidda and Waldeck, of all of which the landgrave considers himself now to be the lord}1581F, 1587F, 1588S & 1598F end here for Hessen}.
92.4. But listen to the few things which Helius Eobanus Hessus, that worthy poet says in a certain congratulatory poem of his, written and dedicated to Philip, the landgrave of this country, at the occasion of the victory achieved by him at Würtemberg, where he incidentally also speaks as follows about the nature of this province, as well as about the manners of its people.
92.5. Qualis Hyperboreum prospectans Thraca Booten | Gradiui domus ad Rhodopen, Hemumque niualem | Circumfusa iacet, gelidis assueta pruinis, | Gignit in arma viros duratos frigore, quique | Aut Hebrum, Nessumque bibunt, aut Strymonis | undas: | Talis & ipsa situ, talis regione locorum | Et fluuiis siluisque frequens, & montibus altis | Haßia: naturæ similes creat alma locorum | Ceu natos in bella viros, quibus omnis in armis | Vita placet: non vlla iuuat sine Marte, nec vllam | Esse putant vitam, quæ non assueuerit armis. | Quòd si tranquillæ vertantur ad otia pacis, | Otia nulla terunt sine magno vana labore: | Aut duro patrios exercent vomere colles, | [new column] Æquatosque solo campos rimantur aratris | (Namque & planicies segetum fœcunda patentes | Explicat innumeras, & plena messe colonos | Ditat, & ipsa sibi satis est,) aut ardua silvæ | Lustra petunt, canibusque feras sectantur odoris, | Venatu genus assuetum, genus acre virorum; |
92.6. Aut leges & iura ferunt, aut oppida condunt | Fortia, non solùm bello munimina, verùm | Quæ deceant in pace etiam, oblectentque quietos. | Quid sacros memorem fontes? quid amœna vireta? | Quid valles ipsis certantes frugiferacis | Vallibus Æmoniæ? dulces quid vbique recessus | Musarum loca, consessu loca digna Dearum? | O patriæ gelidi fontes, ô flumina nota, | O valles, ô antra meis notissima Musis! &c.
92.7. [in the 1606E edition, this is translated (from Ort95B) as follows:]
{1606E translation{In English prose briefly, this much: Hessen, in nature of its soil and temperature of its air is a country of all the world most similar to Thrace. This is so, because it is much covered by many tall and stately woods, beset and enclosed with the snow-topped mountains Hemus, Rhodope, Pangæus and Cercina, watered and fed by the chilly and frozen streaming rivers Hebrus, Nessus and Strimon. It breeds a hardy kind of people, fit for all kinds of service and toilsome travel. Here, as if they were descended from mighty Mars, their chief delight is war making, [as] no other kind of life pleases them half so well, nay, they think that otherwise there is no life at all, or at least not [a kind of life] worth living for a man enjoying martial feats and deeds of arms.
92.8. Yet, if all is quiet and Mars sleeps, they cannot stand to live in idleness and to spend their time at home. So them they either give themselves to farming and follow the plough, (for here the large and open excellent grounds with great advantage repay the farmers tenure and toils) or else, by hawking and hunting through thick and thin, in the darkest woods and most bushy forests over hedge and ditch, over the highest hills and lowest valleys follow their game most laboriously. Others take as great pains in commanding and ruling the commonwealth, ending controversies and seeing that the laws are duly observed and carried out. Others busy themselves in building and fortifying cities, making them not only strong against assault and battery of the enemy in time of war, but also gorgeous and beautiful to the great delight and astonishment of the beholders in time of peace.
92.9. What should I say about the excellent wholesome springs, the pleasant green meadows, pastures and valleys which in fruitfulness may justly contend with those of Thessalia {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1592L & 1602G have instead{Æmonia}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L(AB), 1580G2Add, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1592L & 1602G instead}, that fertile country in Greece so much recommended by poets and historians? Of the various and manifold pleasures and delightful places, brooks and clear running waters of this country? &c.}1606E translation}.

92.10. Holstein.

92.11. About this Holstein, Albert Crantzius [writes] like this in the twenty-seventh chapter of his fifth book {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{of his Chronicle on Saxony}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}: Holsatia derived its name from a vernacular word of that language {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{Holts [wood]}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}, because the country is woody and full of forests, to distinguish between these parts and those neighbouring near to it, which are marshy and green pasture grounds. The Saxons call the inhabitants Holsaten, that is, people dwelling amongst the woods. In contrast, they call those who dwell in fenny countries Merluden.
92.12. From that the Romans have formed the names Holsati, Holsatia {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{like the French and Italians are used to enrich the Latin tongue from their own language}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. On the East this country has the river Bilene as its border, {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{in German de Belt, in Latin Mare Balticum}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}, in the West [the river] Stör, in the South [the river] Elbe and in the North by [the river] Eider, which in former times was the furthest border of Denmark.
92.13. From this river Eastwards {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{to the river Trave}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only} was where the Wandals, also called Wagers lived, by whom this province was named Wagria, after an ancient (and once populous) city of that name, now a poor village, little inhabited, without gates, walls or trenches. The houses are covered with reeds gathered in the fens, and inhabited by the homely and rural. {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{It runs Eastwards as far as the river Trave}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}.
92.14. That part of the country which from the river Bilene near the Elbe {1580G2Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G only{ and Eider}1580G2Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G only} declines towards the river Stör, and is called Stormaria after that river, leaves but little territory to old Holsatia, [namely] from [the] Stör to [the] Eider. For the Dithmarschers, a people inhabiting moorish and fenny places, claim freedom and privilege from anyone.
92.15. This is what Crantzius and others in his time wrote about the state of Holstein as it then [was]. From which it is apparent that Holstein was divided into Ditmarsch, Wagria and Stormare. The same Crantzius and others also call these Holsaters Transalbianos and Nordalbianos since they are situated beyond and North of the river Elbe.
92.16. He who wrote about the wars between the Danes and the Ditmarschers (we do not know his name) describes these countries somewhat differently than the writers named before have done. For he states that Holstein, as it is now called, generally comprises the duchy of Schleswig, Wagria, Stormare, Ditmarsch and Jutland, [together] with certain other smaller countries and islands, such as Angeln, Swant-land, {1580G2Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G only{the duchy of Lübeck}1580G2Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G only} anciently called Cimbrica Chersonesus.
92.17. But this limitation is somewhat too general, for the same author immediately after writes that Holstein is properly bounded by those four rivers within which Crantzius restrains it. Although Annonius Monachus, as he cites there, instead of the river Eider places on the North side the wall and trench which the people call Denwerk. And this is the Holstein which this map of ours presents to your view. That the Cimbri, a warlike people, inhabited this area long since is very clear from the writings of the main classical authors.
92.18. In Wagria Crantzius lists these cities: Oldenburg, Lütjenburg, Neustad, Todeslo, Segeberg, Plön &c. In Stormaria, Hamburg, Rendsburg, Neumünster, Itzehoe &c. Ditmarsch has no cities. They only dwell in villages [there], and we have written elaborately about it in its proper place}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L(AB), 1580G2Add, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F & 1602G end here}.

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