Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 53

Text, scholarly version only, translated from the 1602 Spanish and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

53.1. {1602S{The duchy of Burgundy.

53.2. Burgundy consists of two parts: one is called the lower one which means the royal one. It has the name of a duchy and was once the area of the Ædui. The other part is the upper one and is also called the imperial part, which is an countship, commonly called FRANCE COMTÉ (which means free duchy, and which used to be inhabited by the Sequani. This is the part depicted in this map. On the North side it is bordered by Lorraine and upper Germany. In the West it has lower Burgundy just mentioned.
53.3. Switzerland lies to its East. In the South it is bordered by the Allobroges and Secusiani people. Nowadays it is divided into three dioceses or prefectures, namely the upper, the lower and the one called Dolana. Its cities are the following: in the upper part you find Gray. This city is considered one of the most important cities of this part of Burgundy, lying on the bank of the river Saône. It is rich in merchandise and wonderful to behold on account of its stately houses. On one side it has a large valley and fertile fields for all that is needed. Then we have Vesoul, surrounded by a strong wall and with beautiful, well built houses.
53.4. Vines grow here in abundance. Further there are Momboson, Jussey, Palma close to the river called Doux. Then Port-sur-Saône at the bank of the river Saône. Then Cromaroy, Montgustin and Faucogney. The main cities of lower Burgundy are Salindres, a hospitable and fine city, having the same name as its salty and deep springs, for they yield salt of a snow-white colour superior to any other kind, which is transported by waggon to surrounding areas, yielding much profit and taxes. The city is located in a long and narrow valley called Scodinga and therefore is quite extended between the mountains which are frightfully high, and which have many vines. It is a strong city with high towers and two castles.
53.5. In this pleasant area there is also the city of Arbois, known for its abundance of merchandise, but most of all known and famous for its excellent wine which can be kept for a long time. It has large suburbs around it, as well as cemeteries, but it also has gardens inside its walls. Around it are numerous mountains, which are lovely to behold, since they contain numerous springs, vineyards and trees. And precisely because there are so many trees it is called Arbois.
53.6. Then you have Poligny, which is not at all bad, but is fortified with beautiful walls and towers, and is prominent because of the castle named Grimonia which belongs to it. On both sides it has mountains. On one side, these mountains have thick woods, on the other side they have vineyards with wine of the most excellent reputation. The city of Pontarlier is built at the foot of two mountains, along the banks of the river Doux. Near to it lies the strong castle of Jura, located on top of a mountain, so that it cannot be taken.
53.7. Nozeroy, also located on the high top of a mountain, may be regarded as the navel or middle of the country. Almost all of its houses have been built of stone. The ruler of this land has a castle called the leaden castle because of its leaden roof. It has four fairs each year. Before this town was walled, it was called Nucillum, because of its yearly production of hazelnuts, having hedges of these hazelnuts. Châtel Chalons, so named after Charles the Great and his good deeds, was built by him and received his name. It is because of its location a well known and strong city. Monmort, not hard to climb, also has vines.
53.8. Orgelet is known for its merchandise. Its inhabitants are keen merchants, who trade wool. Its soil is barren, and it is course and uneven because of its hills and numerous rocks, so that the saying arose that it has fields without grass, rivers without fish and mountains without woods.
53.9. In the third region of this Burgundy lies the city of Dola, the most famous one of the entire region, and a source or fountain of various studies, but mostly law. It can be seen at a pleasant location along the river Doux. It winds its way eastwards along bridges, walls and fortifications or bastions. Its houses, churches and schools are pleasant to behold, not only because they are a sight to see, but also because they have been constructed very cunningly.
53.10. Quingey is a very old city, located along the river Loue. Ornans lies between steep mountains, [also] at the river Loue which runs through it and which contains a lot of fish. Loya is a wonderful village, and Rochefort a little city. Vercelles is horrible to behold because of its broken walls. In this duchy there is also Besançon, a metropolis which is the capital of both Burgundies. But since this sheet cannot contain a full description, and since Gilbertus Cognatus, Paradinus and Georgius Braun in their city books have described it diligently, we do not report any further on this city. For since the books written by these men are easily obtainable, we think it best to refer to them.
53.11. When he wants to, he may also read Robertus Cœnalis. We wish that Cognatus has not created vain hope in the reader. For he has promised to publish a book to explain and do justice to ancient Burgundy, including a depiction of its places mentioning their old and new names, but so far we have waited for this without any results. However, these days a specific book has been published about this duchy by Ludovicus Gollusius in he French language.

53.12. The countship of Burgundy.

53.13. That part of Gallia Lugdunensis which the Ædui once enjoyed is now called the countship of Burgundy. It is bordered in the North by Champagne and Gastinois. West by Nivernois and Borbonnois. South, it borders on Lyon, and East the river Rhône separates it from Savoye and the countship of Burgundy. The main city in former times Autun, now Divio or Dijon, as Gregoire of Tours calls it in his third book, as do its inhabitants. Dijon now has superiority, for here the parliament for the whole countship is held, as recent writers say. It is located on the banks of the river Ouche, a river abounding with fish, on a fertile and rich soil, the adjacent mountains producing strong and excellent wines, as Gregoire of Tours, whom we just mentioned, reports. Some think that it was built by emperor Aurelianus but others claim it to be much older. It is a city most strongly fortified by art and nature against all hostile attempts [to invade it], and certain new forts have lately been added. Belna, (Beaulne) is the second city of the countship, famous for the wines of Beaulne which everyone recommends.
53.14. This city is fairly built, and unassailable because of a castle which Louis the twelfth erected here. It has a hospital comparable in shape to any kings palace. Here is also the seat of the high court of the chancery. The abbey of Cisterium was built in the adjacent territory by duke Othone around the year of our Lord 1098, on a woody and moist soil, which some think was so called because of certain cisternes dug there. Under the jurisdiction of this monastery, as Belleforest reports, there are 1800 other monasteries of friars, and as many of nuns.
53.15. Next follows Augustodunum (which some, though on insufficient grounds of antiquity, suppose to have been Bibracte, now Autun. That this city in ancient times was very large and populous is evident from various authors, and especially from Cæsar. Here are still mighty ruins extant of a theatre, of statues, pillars, water channels, pyramids and many other monuments from antiquity. Thus, here they daily dig up coins, small vessels, and other such ancients remnants.
53.16. This city has experienced two memorable captures. One by Cæsar in his French wars. And the other around the time of Galienus the emperor. But it was afterwards rebuilt by Constantine, the son of Claudius, as the panegyric of Eumenius, calling it Flauiam Heduorum, testifies. And at this very day it is adorned with stately temples and other buildings for public use.
53.17. Then you have Matiscona Cæsaris or Matisconense castrum of Antoninus, where he puts in garrison the tenth Roman legion. It is now called Mâcon. Long ago it was graced with the title of a countship. It joins the banks of [the river] Saône by a bridge. Here the Lord's day of the Christians was first celebrated, as Paradinus reports on the basis of the Edict of Guntram. The history of the city of Matissana has been described elegantly and succinctly by Philip Bugnonius. [Then there is] Cabilon, now Châlons, also on the banks of the Saône, anciently called Orbandale, as Peter Sanjulian reports. The fourteenth Roman legion here had its garrison, according to Antoninus.
53.18. It was in old times the royal seat of Guntram, which notwithstanding was afterwards so thoroughly destroyed and burnt to the ground by Lotharius, son of Ludovicus Pius, that no mention of a city remained. Yet, now it is very rich, and a place of great commerce. Also towards the North you have Saumur in Mandubii, a fair town built upon a high ground. There are other cities such as Châtillon, Flavigni, Soloigne, Noyers and others, for the description of which I refer the reader to Belleforest, a diligent surveyor of these parts, because this page cannot contain it.
53.19. I will only add one thing here, taken from Sanjulian just mentioned. Against the opinion of all other writers, he does not derive the word Burgundy from à burgis, that is, from the boroughs or incorporated towns built in this region, but from one particular place, called Burg Ogne. He says that in the territory of Langres, near the river Tilia, between Luz and Thil-castle there is a plain which the inhabitants call by no other name than Val d'Ogne, where in former times stood a famous borough or city. It is hence, without question, as he affirms, that the Burgundians, or as they are commonly called the Bourgondians derive their name, and he considers those writers to be much in the wrong who report that they [the Burgundians], as vagabond people, have come from Sarmatia, Scandia, or the fens of Mæotis to inhabit this region, endeavouring to persuade everyone that they were the first and most ancient inhabitants of this country.
53.20. The borders of Burgundy used to extend further in former times, as becomes clear from various authors. There are some that have the Mediterranean as its Southern border, the Alps and the river Rhine at the East, the Vosges mountains in the North and the rivers Loire and Seine in the West. Then, classical writers record, it was governed by kings, whose royal seat was Arles. It was divided into the duchy and countship of Burgundy around the year 1034, as the chronicle of Æmilianus testifies. Of the Burgundians Paradinus and Nicolas Vignier have chosen to write in Latin, and Peter Sanjulian in French. You can read about the ancient Ædui in Nazarius' panegyric, presented to Constantine the emperor}1602S, 1609/1612S & 1641S end here}.

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