Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 39

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S and 1609/1612 Latin edition:

39.1. {1570L(ABC){The region of BERRY {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641Shave instead{of BITVRIGES or BOVRGES}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, {1606E only{called of old BITVRIGES}1606E only}.

39.2. {1573L(AB){The people called {1602G instead{city}1602G instead} Bituriges are mentioned in most of the ancient geographers. Plinius calls them Liberi [freemen] and says they were also known as Cubi. {1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{The country is now divided in to Upper and Lower [Berry]}1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. The principal city, now called Bourges was (as some think) named Auaricum by Cæsar. Theobald Fagotius, a citizen from there, writes that the surrounding territory is exceedingly fruitful, and lacks nothing that France may afford, that the city is ancient, as appears from various notable monuments, that it is a town with much trade and markets, {all Latin editions only{and accommodates frequent bargaining}all Latin editions only}, and that they have a university flourishing with all kinds of learning, so that it might well be called the honour of the liberal arts, and a market of learned men. But concerning the origins of this city and the derivation of its name, let us lend an ear to Ioannes Calamæus who writes about it in the following manner}1573L(AB)}.
39.3. In the year 1791 after the creation of the world, a certain Gomer of the nation of the Gauls, bringing a colony into this region of the Bituriges, established it in the chief city, the name Ogygis being imposed for honour's sake on its inhabitants by Noah, his grandfather. For the affection and love they had for their founder who descended from the Ogygis, they changed it later, and they named themselves Bitogyges, which in the Armenian tongue means the posterity of Ogygis. But since words are customarily often corrupted, (for, to make them easier to pronounce or more proper, we will not shrink from adding, detracting or altering some letters or syllables) so the name of this country and of its chief city either by nature, or by the appointment of a certain prince, which I believe more easily, named Biturix changed the name of Bitogyges to Biturigum, and specifically to the city of Bituricensium, afterwards called Bituriges {1580/1589G & 1602G only{and finally Bourges}1580/1589G & 1602G only}. Among other views, some think that it was called Bituris or Biturris, after two ancient towers which once stood in this city, after which a certain grammarian has written this verse: Turribus à binis, inde vocor Bituris, {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{that is, After two towers I was called Biturris}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}. So much from the book by Ioannes Calamæus on the origins of the Bituriges {1608/1612I only{or those from Berry}1608/1612I only}, from whom we have also obtained this map.


39.5. The size of this whole region, which some ab alimonijs, [after its] victuals call Alimonia, others after the fat and slimy soil Limaigne, {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{being part of Auvergne, we could not exactly measure, due to the shortness of time, its high hills and low valleys, and the crooked windings and turnings [of its roads]}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}. The length of it (I say) from the bridge of old Brivata all the way to Ganato {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{(abounding with corn, wine, honey, cattle, horses, saffron, nuts, herbs, pastures, woods, fountains, rivers, baths, clay, lakes, silver mines, honourable families, strong fortresses and rich merchandise)}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G} is about twenty {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{30 Italian}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} leagues, and the width almost eight {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{twelve}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} leagues. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{But through lack of time, we have not been able to indicate all its hills, and low valleys, and the crooked windings and turnings of its roads. It abounds with all kinds of produce, such as wine, honey, cattle, cows, saffron, nuts, vegetables, pastures, pretty forests, springs, rivers, baths, resin and sulphur, lakes, silver mines, famous old dynasties, castles and merchandise}1580/1589G & 1602G only}. But since we only portray the more fruitful and inhabited part, the map that follows covers about eight {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{twelve Italian}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} leagues in length, and almost seven {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{eleven and a half}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} in width, {1580/1589G & 1602G only{and therefore we have decided to add nor subtract from the small number of cities and villages [of our example]}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{placing the towns and villages according to the scale annexed under it}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}. So far the author in a treatise entitled A small and speculative dialogue, written by him in Italian, where you may see the very map which I have published here}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G end here}.
39.6. {1592L{On the lower part of this map stands a mountain with a small town named Gergoie. This is Gergovia in Arvernis near the river Elauer, about which more in Cæsar in his seventh book of the French wars}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Now the vernacular version from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French & 1598 French editions is presented. Note that the 1598/1610/1613D edition does not contain this map.

39.7. {1571/1573D{The land of Berry.
39.8. Jean Chaumeau has written a heavy book about this region in French, from which we have taken this map {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F have instead{this discourse}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead} to serve us. This land lies in the middle, very close to France [Franche Comté], and is very fertile in wine, corn and cattle. It has good pasture for sheep, so that it has much commerce in wool and linen which is made in its capital called Bourges. This Bourges was called Avaricum in old times; it is an archbishopric and has a university with seven canon priests. There is much commerce here in linen which is woven here and to sell it, they have six times a year a free market here. It is a very strong city. It has other cities under its jurisdiction such as Sancerre, which is an duchy. This city used to be called Gordon, (and, as some think) Sacrum Cereris.
39.9. Here grows very good wine all around, which bears the name of the region, as also many pastures {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead{venison}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead}. [Then] St. Saturnin on the Loire. Here is a very rich abbey, surrounded by high walls, turrets and gates. Its abbot is the ruler of the city. [Then] Ays d'Angillon, a city with a castle. In the castle is a church with cannon priests. It lies in a very fertile area. [Then] Montfaucon. This city lies in very flat land, but it has a castle situated on a height. There are many woods here, and fishery all around. [Then] Lure, a small city with a strong castle. [Then] Issoudun. Its jurisdiction extends far and wide around it. Its main product is wine which is very good, as also cattle for slaughter, because it has many fertile meadows.
39.10. Then there are Charroux, Chateauroux, Gratay, Liniez, St. Sever and Argenton, an old city with many remnants of antiquities in the ground. Also Boussac, Chartres and Berry, Châteaumeillant, Bourges, Châtel, Motte Fully and Mareuil, where you find iron mines. [Then] Vouillon, Neufuy, Aigurande, Masseube, Coudray, Dum le Roy, Châteauneuf, Vierzon, Mehun, once called Mediolanum, with the strongest and most beautiful castle of this area. Further Aubigny, Concourson which is called Concordiæ saltus in Latin, Angillon and Aignan, where most commerce takes place. [Finally] Levroux and Vatan. These are the cities of Berry.

39.11. Limaigne
39.12. This part of the land of Auergne is called Limaigne. But it does not cover all of it, but only its most fertile part. It is a land very pleasantly covered with woods, fountains, hot springs, silver mines, and all kinds of fruits. Its capital is Clermont. At the bottom of this little map you see a small mountain named Gergoie, where you can still see the old ruins (as Gabriel Simeon writes), of the renowned city of Gergobia, about which Julius Cæsar writes, and where Vercingetorix, king of Auvergne, withstood him.
39.13. But here I cannot withstand the temptation (because of its miraculous nature to mention it) what Bellonius writes in his Observations, namely when he speaks of certain waters which because of their peculiar nature turn things which they touch into stone. Also that as a result of this there is a bridge at Clermont of stone, which the course of the water has produced there: truly an astounding miracle of nature}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F editions end here}.

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