Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 203

Text, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish edition [of which the text is in Latin, identical with the text of the 1609/1612 Latin edition], 1609/1612 Latin and the 1624LParergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] edition:

203.1. {1590L4Add{PANNONIA AND ILLYRIS. {1608/1612I only{or ILLINDE}1608/1612I only}{1591G4Add & 1602G only{that is, Austria/Hungary/ and Sclavonia.}1591G4Add & 1602G only}.

203.2. {not in 1602G{In Dion, an author of good reputation, who was once, it is certain, lieutenant in this country, I read that the PANNONES received their name because they used to wear sleeved coats made ex pannis, {1606E only{that is, of patches or pieces of woollen cloth}1606E only}, cut and designed after their [own] manner and fashion, [which is] unusual in other countries, {not in 1602G & 1606E{as confirmed by Xylander and by the flower of the Belgian world, Lipsius}not in 1602G & 1606E}. {1595L{That they received their name from the Apennine mountains is claimed by Isidorus who says to have read it in some author or another, but surely I think he was dreaming when he wrote this, since it is very far from the truth}1595L, not in 1602G}.
203.3. Ptolemæus claims that {1591G4Add & 1602G only{Austria and Hungary}1591G4Add & 1602G only}{1590L4Add, 1592L and later have instead{PANNONIA}1590L4Add, 1592L & later instead}, their country, is confined within the rivers Danube and Saw, and the mountains Cetius and Albanus, designating these, it seems, to be its true and natural boundaries. Effectively Strabo did the same, who describes the Pannonij as extending Westwards as far as the city of Segistica {1606E only{(Szeged is now the name of the place where it was once located, as Bonfinius writes)}1606E only}, Northwards as far as the river Ister {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only instead{or Danube}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only instead}, Southwards {1606E only{and Eastwards}1606E only} as far as Dalmatia and the Sardiæi, {1606E only{a kind of people dwelling between Mœsia, Dardania and Dalmatia}1606E only}.
203.4. {1595L, not in 1602G{Florus writes that these Pannones are entrenched and walled, as it were, within two large forests or wildernesses and the following three rivers: the Dra, Saw and Danube}1595L, not in 1602G}. Dion says that they inhabit and possess the entire tract of land between Noricum {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E instead{(Bavaria or Bayern)}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only} and Mœsia Europæa, {1606E only{(Servia and Bosnia)}1606E only}{1591G4Add & 1602G only{where it borders on Macedonia where the Danube empties into the Euxine sea}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Appianus claims that {1606E only{in the West}1606E only} they are bordered by the Iapodes {1606E only{or Iapydes, a people of Illyria now called Craner}1606E only}, and {1606E only{Eastwards}1606E only} by Dardania {1606E only{(Bosnia)}1606E only}. But he is wrong when he calls these people Pæones, [which is also] a common error among the Greek historians, which Dion first discovered in his 49th book, because by the Romans, and by themselves, they were called Pannonij.
203.5. The Pæones are a [of] a different nation, that lies between mount Rhodope {1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Thracia}1591G4Add & 1602G only} and the sea coasts of Macedonia. Ptolemæus, Strabo, Dion, Aurelius Victor and ancient inscriptions divide Pannonia into the HIGHER and LOWER. {1595L, not in 1602G{[The book] Liber Notitiarum, {1606E only{The book of Remembrances}1606E only}, [divides it] into the FIRST and SECOND}1595L}. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Optatus Afer distinguishes three Pannonias, but without reason, seeing that those approved authors mentioned above distinguish only two, and the coin of emperor {not in 1606E{Traianus which we have depicted below}not 1606E} Decius [see remark at the very end of this text about this coin] born in this country, does not mention more [than two] either}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}.
203.6. Solinus writes that this country is very flat and excellent, and [has] as rich and fertile a soil as any other in the area. Appianus says that it is full of woods, and that it has neither cities nor towns, but only lands and fields which are divided into certain farms and among families. In Hygenus I read that a tariff and taxes were imposed on these lands according to their fertility and excellence of every acre, {1591G4Add & 1602G only{being 240 feet in length and 120 in width}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, for there were fields of the first and of the second taxation. There are woods yielding yearly a great quantity of acorns, and woods [yielding] the meanest kind of food and pasturage, &c.
203.7. {1595L, not in 1602G{But Iornandes reports differently {not in 1608/1612I{some time later}not in 1608/1612I}, and claims it to be beautified with many excellent cities}1595L, not in 1602G}. The people's life is as hard and difficult as that of any people under heaven, having neither a good soil nor a good temperature, nor can they grow on their own any [olive] oil or wine, except very little and of low quality, nor do they consider to plant and grow these commodities, since the greater part of the year there is very bitterly cold, almost nothing but a continual harsh winter.
203.8. Dion writes that they have some barley and millet {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Strabo says spelt (zea) and millet}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}, of which they make their bread and drinks, and he confirms that he does not write this on the basis of hearsay or stories from others, but on the basis of his own experience and knowledge, which he gained and observed at the time when he was {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{a lieutenant}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G} there. Yet he says they are a most stout and hardy people, but have nothing [to recommend themselves] worth the name of honesty and civility, hasty and bloody-minded as they are, {1606E only{killing and slaying without any respect or fear of God or man, and that [caused] by any cross word, or slight occasion}1606E only}.
203.9. Solinus confirms this to be true, saying that this country is very strong and well furnished with courageous and stout men. {1595L, not in 1602G{Tibullus in his fourth book says that they are a wily and crafty people}1595L, not in 1602G}. Statius and Paterculus called them feroces, {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only{fierce and cruel people}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only}. But the same author on the other hand recommends them too, not only for their great love for military discipline, but also for their skill and knowledge of the Latin tongue, and because several of them are learned and skilled in the liberal sciences.
203.10. {1624LParergon/1641S see § 23, which is inserted here}. Ausonius calls them armiferos, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{a warlike people}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Eusebius in his tenth book de Præparat. Evangelica claims that these people, especially those that lived near Noricum {1606E only{(Bavaria or Bayern)}1606E only} first discovered the use of copper}1595L, not in 1602G}. Herodianus says that they have big bodies, are very tall, ready to fight and to kill and slay on every occasion, but often so dull and simple-minded that they do not easily perceive whether one is dealing or speaking with them about something in a cunning or subtle manner, or in a plain and straightforward way.
203.11. The Panegyric of Mamertinus calls this Pannonia the empress of all valiant nations, and, like Italy, renowned for its ancient honour. Plinius says that this country yields plenty of acorns. The same author also has left on record in his history of nature, as if it were a matter of some importance, that the herb saliunca, a kind of lavender, grows here naturally by itself.
203.12. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Oppianus recommends}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G} the Pannonian dogs, which Nemesianus in this verse confirms to be good hunters: Nec tibi Pannonicæ stirpis temnatur origo, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is:] The hounds bred here in Pannonia are not the worst that I have ever seen}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{The Pannonian caps, made of beast skins or furs, such as soldiers used to wear, are highly recommended by Vegetius}1595L, not in 1602G} {1606E only{in his book on war}1606E only}.
203.13. {1591G4Add & 1602G only{It should not be ignored that they derive from Hungarian tribes}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. This country was later permitted by Probus the emperor to have vines, and with the help of soldiers themselves planted them on mount Almus {1606E only{(Arpatarro)}1606E only} near Sirmium {1606E only{(Sirmisch){1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Hungary}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, the place where he was born}1606E only}, as also on mount Aureus {1606E only{(Meczek)}1606E only} in Moesia superior {1606E only{(Servia)}1606E only}, as Sextus Aurelius Victor in his biography tells.
203.14. In Pæonia, {1606E only{a province here, bordering on mount Rhodope towards Macedonia in Greece}1606E only}, the soil is rich and yields gold, so that many men have found lumps of gold-ore [there] weighing more than a pound {1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{more than 25 Loth}1591G4Add & 1602G instead}{1608/1612I has instead{twelve pounds}1608/1612I instead}. And within the borders of this country, Aristoteles in his Admiranda writes that often the earth or upper crust is washed away by continual showers and [then] that kind of gold which they call apyrum {1606E only{(quick gold, if I may call it that, such as has not been touched by fire)}1606E only} is found without any digging or other labour.
203.15. {not in 1608/1612I{But here again I also observe the error {not in 1608/1612I{which is very frequent among the Greek writers, who}not in 1608/1612I} wrongly take Pæonia to be Pannonia. For}not in 1608/1612I} Pannonia or Hungary is even to this day so rich in gold that it is wonderful, and difficult to believe for those who have not seen it, as Bonfinius, Broderith and Ranzanus all report when they write that they have seen very many golden branches of vines, some as long as ones finger, others half a foot long, but about the richness of Pæonia in gold mines I have never heard or read about in any author, as far as I remember.
203.16. Diogenes Laërtius has noted in his life of Pyrrhus Eliensis that the Pæones used to cast the bodies of dead people into ponds or deep pools. {1595L, not in 1602G{Maximus Tyrius writes in his 38th oration that the Pæones worshipped the sun, and that the symbol or idol of it which they adored was a small dish, attached to the end of a long pole set upright}1595L, not in 1602G}. But whether this refers to them [the Pæones], or to the Pannones (because the author is Greek) I do not know, and [therefore I] leave it to the consideration of the learned.
203.17. This is similar to the passage in Ælianus' twelfth chapter of his seventh book de Animalibus where he discusses the difficulties and hardships of the women of this country, well worth reading and noting.
203.18. {1595L, not in 1602G{Tzetzes also, in the 318th chapter of his tenth Chiliade, uses Pæones where he means Pannones, when he writes something relevant for our purpose. Antigonus in his book de Mirabilis writes that in Illyria and Pannonia there is a kind of beast called Monychus {1608/1612I only{looking like a bull, but more threatening and larger}1608/1612I only}. Ælianus calls it Monops, others Bonasus. Diaconus in the eighth chapter of his second book on the history of Lombardy writes that Pannonia produces a great quantity of buffaloes {1606E only{or bugles (bisons)}1606E only} and that he heard from an honest man that fifteen people have been known to lie on one buffalo hide, thus commenting on the large size of this beast}1595L, not in 1602G}. So much about both Pannonias. Now what remains is that we in a similar manner say something about Illyris.
203.19. This country is by Ptolemæus called ILLYRIS, by Stephanus ILLYRIA, ILLYRIÆ or ILLYRIVM, [and] by other historians and geographers ILLYRICVM. {1595L, not in 1602G{Valerius Maximus writes that a certain Alexander wrote a whole book describing this country}1595L, not in 1602G}. It received its name, if we may believe Appianus Alexandrinus from Illyrius, the son of Polyphemus, or son of Cadmon, as {1595L, not in 1602G{Apollodorus and}1595L, not in 1602G} Stephanus think[s]. The borders of this country are described differently by different [writers]. For Ptolemæus confines it to the Hadriatic sea, Istria, the two Pannonias {1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{between Italy and Dalmatia, Austria and Hungaria}1591G4Add & 1602G instead} and mount Scardus {1606E only{(Marinai they now call it)}1606E only}. Plinius makes it end at the city of Lissus {1606E only{(Alesio)}1606E only}. Pomponius says that it begins at Tergestum {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{(Triest}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead}, a city in Friaul)}1606E only} and that it ends at the river Æa, {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{which is near Apollonia}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G} {1606E only{(Sissopoli, a town in Macedonia, Greece)}1606E only}. Martianus makes it extend even further, namely as high as the Ceraunian mountains, like Strabo does in a similar manner.
203.20. Suetonius in his life of Tiberius writes as follows about the borders of this country: ILLYRICVM, lies between Italy and the kingdom of Noricum {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E instead(Bayern)}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E instead}, Thracia and Macedonia, between the river Danube and the gulf of Venice. And Appianus claims it to be even larger, stretching out its length from the head of the river Ister {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{(Danube)}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead} all the way to the Pontic sea {1606E{(Mar Maiore)}1606E}. Sextus Rufus who lived in the time of Valentinianus, the Roman emperor, comprehends under the name of Illyricum the following seventeen provinces: The two Norici, {1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{the two Bavarias, the Upper and the Lower }1591G4Add & 1602G instead} the two Pannonias {1591G4Add & 1602G only{namely Austria and Hungaria}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, Valeria, Savia, Dalmatia, Mœsia, the two Dacias (1591G4Add & 1602G instead{Walachen}1591G4Add & 1602G instead}, Macedonia, Thessalia, Achaia, {1591G4Add & 1602G only{consisting of}1591G4Add & 1602G only} the two Epiri, Prævalis and Creta. So much about the names and borders of this country as taken from various authors.
203.21. We have on this map depicted only Ptolemæus' Illyricum, which he divides into two parts, namely LIBVRNIA and DALMATIA. Livius in his forty-fifth book divides it into three parts according to its people and inhabitants. About the nature of which provinces Strabo writes in the following manner: The whole sea coast of Illyricum is well furnished with suitable and commodious harbours, I mean both as regards the mainland and the islands lying near to it. The soil is fertile with all kinds of fruits and rich commodities, {1595L, not in 1602G{especially olives and strong wines}1595L, not in 1602G}. The entire land that is situated around it is mountainous, cold, and covered with snow, so that vines are here very rare, both on high grounds and in plains and valleys. For this reason Propertius called it not altogether unfittingly Gelida Illyria, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{bleak and frozen Illyria}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}.
203.22. Appianus calls these people incolas bellicosissimos, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{a most warlike and courageous people}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}. Livius says that they are a very hardy nation, both on sea and on land. {1595L, not in 1602G{Florus and Strabo report them to be cruel and bloody men, much given to robbing and stealing. Julianus the emperor in his discourse de Cæsaribus states plainly that they are one of the bravest and most valiant nations of all of Europe. Vegetius records that there were always resident in Illyria two legions called Martiobarbuli. These were later by Diocletianus and Maximianus, emperors of Rome called Ioviani and Herculei, and they were esteemed above all other legions whatsoever. Illyricis sudant equitatibus alæ [the Illyrian horsemen sweat in their armpits] is what Claudianus reports in the praise of Serena.
203.23. {in 1624LParergon/1641S inserted in § 10{Lampridius claims them to be respected and renowned for their skill in sooth-saying and predictions of future events {1608/1612I only{on the basis of the entrails of animals}1608/1612I only}, when he writes that Alexander Severus excelled in that skill in this nation}in 1624LParergon/1641S inserted in § 10}. Isogonus writes in Plinius that there are a kind of people [here] among them who can bewitch [someone] with their eyes, and who kill those who behold them and look at them for a longer while, particularly those that have fiery eyes, as if moved with anger, and these people can see two things at the same time with their eyes}1595L, not in 1602G}
203.24. Ælianus says that they are great wine drinkers, {1595L, not in 1602G{and, as Athenæus reports, are very much given to drunkenness. {1601L, in 1608/1612I at the end of § 25{About the maidens and wives of this country, see Varros sixteenth chapter of his second book. Claudianus in his second Panegyric to Stilico says that they were permitted in the time of the reign of the later emperors to grow vines, where he writes like this: Exectis inculta dabant quas secula sylvis, | Restituit terras, & opacum vitibus Istrum | Conserit, {Book 2 line 205] which happened, it seems, around the time of emperor Probus}1601L, in 1608/1612I at the end of § 25}. In Ammianus Marcellinus I find the mentioning of Sabaia, a drink of the poorer kind of people, which they made of barley or wheat turned into a drink or a kind of potion}1595L, not in 1602G}.
203.25. Clemens Alexandrinus in {not in 1602G{the first book of}not in 1602G} his Stromaton writes that these people were the first to invent that weapon {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{which the Romans called Pelta}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{a kind of shield or target}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
203.26. The cows here every year bring forth two or three calves each, and some four, yea some [even] five or more at once, and give so much milk that every single cow yields more than a large gallon {1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{three half pails}1591G4Add & 1602G instead}{1590L4Add, 1592L & 1595L and later have instead{3 semisextarios, [about 1.5 liter]}1590L4Add, 1592L & 1595L & later instead} daily. Also, the hens do not lay only once a day, but some lay two or three eggs each, every day, {not in 1591G4Add{as Aristoteles confirms plainly in his Admiranda}not in 1591G4Add}.
203.27. {1595L, not in 1602G{Ælianus writes that he heard it reported by others that their goats here are whole-footed}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1606E only{not cloven, as [is the case] elsewhere}1606E only}. Plinius reports that the best gentian grows here, {1606E only{a bitter kind of root or herb, this root being of great virtue and in heavy demand for health applications}1606E only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{The same author recommends their cockles [a kind of plant] for their extraordinary size}1595L, not in 1602G}.
203.28. Athenæus {not in 1606E{in his book 15}not in 1606E} claims that here in the high country, far from the sea, grows the best and most excellent lychnis [kind of gillyflower] {1606E only{or rose}1606E only}. Ovidius {1595L, not in 1602G{in his second book of de Arte Amandi}not in 1602G} {not in 1606E{and his commentaries on Tutica}not in 1606E} highly recommends Illyrian tar. Theophrastus, {not in 1602G{Cornelius Celsus}1595L,not in 1602G} Ovidius and Dionysius Uticensis mention the Illyrian flower-de-luce, {1606E only{an herb [which] besides its beauty is of excellent use as a medicine}1606E only}, the best of which, and most highly esteemed, as Plinius writes, grows in the wilderness and woods around the rivers Drilo {1606E only{(Drino or Lodrino)}1606E only}, and the Narona, {1606E only{now called Narcuta}1606E only}.
203.29. {1595L, not in 1602G{In Illyria, if we may believe Festus, as reported by Hippius, every ninth year they used to throw four horses into the sea as a sacrifice to Neptune}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1606E only{its great commander}1606E only}.
203.30. Dionysius Vticensis and Cælius Apitius speak about oleum Liburnicum, {1606E only{a kind of oil made here}1606E only}. The same author tells us about a cold spring or well in Illyria. If one spreads any clothes over it, they will start burning, {1606E only{and finally are totally consumed [by the fire]}1606E only}. So much in general about Illyria. Now what remains is that we speak a word or two about Liburnia and Dalmatia, being parts of it, of which the borders, as Florus thinks, are at the river Titius {1606E only{(Cercha or Polischa)}1606E only} or at the city of Scardona {1606E only{(Scardo)}1606E only}, located on the bank of that river, according to Ptolemæus, {1595L, not in 1602G{Dioscorides, Galenus}1595L, not in 1602G} and Plinius.
203.31. Liburnia is renowned for the kind of ships which were first made and used here, and which therefore were named naves Liburnicæ [Liburnian ships]. {1606E only{They seem to have been like our pinnacles [light ships with two masts], or foists [small ships], light and swift in sailing and therefore good for pirates and sea robbers}1606E only}. And Vegetius writes that they were considered to be the best kind of ships for service and battle at sea, {1606E only{and therefore in war to be preferred to any other kind of ships whatsoever}1606E only}. This is confirmed by Appianus, who says that in lightness and swiftness they far surpassed any other kind of ships. And Zosimus confirms that they were as quick by sail as those galleys that were propelled and rowed by fifty oars, but he is wrong where he says that they were named after a certain city in Italy.
203.32. {1595L, not in 1602G{Apitius tells us, as we said before, about a Liburnian oil}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1606E only{used, as it seems, for some applications in the kitchen}1606E only}. About the iron mines in Dalmatia see Cassiodorus in {1595L, not in 1602G{the third book of}1595L, not in 1602G} his Variarum, adressed to Symeon.
203.33. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{The following verses by Statius in his Silvæ [woods] show that Illyria also has some veins of gold: Quando te dulci Latio remittent | Dalmatiæ montes, Ubi Dite viso | Pallidus fossor redit, erutoque, | Concolor auro. The same says the poet Martialis {1606E only{in the seventy-eighth epigram of his tenth book, [addressed] to Macer}1606E only}, in these words: Ibis littoreas Macer Salonas; | Felix auriferæ colone terræ}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. Yet, Strabo plainly states that they used no kind of money or coins, {1606E only{neither of silver, nor of gold}1606E only}. Moreover he says that every eight years they make a new division of their lands.
203.34. {1601L, not in 1602G & 1608/1612I{There are in Dalmatia, as Cicero writes to Vatinius, twenty ancient towns, which are also accompanied by more than sixty other towns}1601L, not in 1608/1612I}. {1595L{The turnip and cabbage grow by themselves in Dalmatia, {1606E only{without planting, sowing or manuring [them]}1606E only}, as Athenæus writes in book 9 {1606E only{of his Deipnosophiston}1606E only}, on the authority of Posidonius. For this is how Dalechampius translates the Greek word [in Greek lettering] almatia [which] is not done by any other author, as far as I know}1595L, not in 1602G}.{1608/1612I only{Cicero writes to Publius Vatinus that there were twenty ancient cities in Dalmatia and more than sixty springs, as the same author states}1608/1612I only}.
203.35. Aristoteles in his often cited Admiranda gives us to understand that the Taulantij, a people of Dalmatia used honey to make a kind of wine. They take honey combs and pour water on them, press and wring out the liquor which they immediately boil in a large kettle or cauldron, until half of it has evaporated. Then they put it into wooden {1606E instead{earthen}1606E instead} vessels and let it rest for a period of time. Finally, they pour it into barrels or vessels and keep it there for a long time until it acquires the true and perfect taste of a strong kind of wine.
203.36. The same author writes in the same place that in the land of the Ardiæi, also a people of Dalmatia, at the border near the Autariata there is a high mountain, and close to it a large valley from which water runs in great abundance, yet, not at all times but only in spring time. This [water] they pour into a vessel during the day time, {1595L, not in 1602G{which they keep closed in the house}1595L, not in 1602G}, but at night they put [this vessel] outside without the lid. After they have done this for six days, the water finally congeals and turns into salt as fine as you may ever see.
203.37. Plinius describes at the edge of Dalmatia a cave which he calls,with a wide and deep opening. If you throw anything into it, however small, and on the most quiet day ever, a storm like a whirlwind will rise immediately. {1595L, not in 1602G{Perhaps this is the origin of that fable of the two rocks about which Dionysius Afer speaks}1595L, not in 1602G}.
203.38. In the same area there is a cave called Dianas cave, in which, if one may believe Phlegon Trallianus, there are many corpses, the ribs of each of which are more than sixteen ells long. {1606E only{Give him the whetstone}1606E only}. So far about this country and its people, [as] gathered from most ancient authors}1591G4Add & 1602G end here}.
203.39. Later authors have called this Illyria SLAVONIA, {1624LParergon/1641S{or SCLAVONIA}1624LParergon/1641S} and its people or inhabitants SLAVONES, {1606E only{Slavonians}1606E only}, and this is the name, reclaimed from the barbarous incivility of other nations, and by holy baptism incorporated into the body of Christ's church during the time of Basilius, emperor of Constantinople and his son Leo, who succeeded him in that empire, by which they [the Slavonians] are described in the eighteenth chapter of his book de Bellico apparatu, where he writes like this, {not in 1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E{according to Ioannis Checus}not in 1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E} about their nature and way of living:{1608/1612I has instead{according to Philippo Pigafetta, translated from Greek, annotating words which are somewhat obscure, using the text of Bassarione, from the library of San Marco in Venice}1608/1612I instead).
203.40. It is a populous nation, able to endure all kinds of hardships. Heat, cold, rain, nakedness, want of food, drink and other similar necessities, they can easily stand. They are habitually humane and courteous to strangers, a hospitality which they diligently maintain and keep up to this very day. For they always proved to be gentle and kind to travellers and strangers, to entertain them friendly and courteously, and to accompany them and conduct them from one place to the other, to defend them and keep them safe and sound against all mishap and danger. If a traveller is wronged by the negligence of his host, they immediately start a fight with him, as if he were a public enemy. For they consider it an important act of fidelity to set straight any wrong done to a stranger, or to revenge it in any way.
203.41. Moreover, their humanity is also demonstrated by the fact that they do not force their captives to eternal servitude, but rather detain and keep them as captives, and prescribe them a fixed period of time in servitude, and, after this period has expired, and the captives have paid a certain fine or sum of money, they might return to their homes in their own country if they wanted to, or, if they preferred that, they could continue to stay among them as friends and free men. Their women are said to be very modest, {1606E only{more so than those of other countries}1606E only}. For many of them take the death of their husbands so gravely that they prefer to die with them, and one way or another make an end to their lives together with their husbands, for they cannot stand it to live on alone {1606E only{as widows after their husbands death. And to remarry is considered as foul and shameful}1606E only}.
203.42. Their ordinary diet is millet. They are very modest and frugal in their eating. Other toils of farming they cannot tolerate, for they love to live without cares and gentleman-like, and they will by no means exert themselves with much work and effort to prepare great banquets and dainty dishes, and then just to consume them drinking and eating. In war they arm themselves with two javelins or spears each. Some of them also carry large shields which they call thyrei {1608/1612I only{maybe in our times called Targhe}1608/1612I only}. They also use wooden bows and arrows, of which the heads are dipped in a very strong, deadly poison. And the body of whoever is wounded [by such arrows] will surely putrefy and perish unless he immediately drinks treacle or some other wholesome and potent antidote, or soon cuts away the whole area [of his body] which is wounded so that it cannot spread any further.
203.43. They like to flee to steep and craggy places that cannot easily be reached or assaulted, to stay and dwell there. So far Leo the emperor}1590L4Add & 1592L end here}. {1595L{About HISTRIA, which is also shown on this map, you will find an elaborate and fine description in the twelfth book of Cassiodore's Variarum, addressed to the lieutenants and governors of this country, which because of the great fertility and abundance of fruits that it yields he calls Ravennæ Campaniam, {1606E only{Campany of Ravenna}1606E only}, and the storehouse of the imperial city}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

(In 1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612S/L under the text, in the 1624LParergon after § 5 two woodcuts with two sides of an ancient coin, the left one showing the head of emperor Traianus Decius Augustus, the right one showing two ladies in long dresses and the text PANNONIAE, Pannonian ladies).

Bibliographical sources

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