Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 147

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1584 Latin 3 Add, 1584 German 3 Add., 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

147.1. {1608/1612I only{The kingdom of}1608/1612I only}{1584L3Add{CANDIA, formerly called CRETA.

147.2. Creta, which they now call Candia {1608/1612I only{the peasants call it Candaca, and in good Tuscan Italian Creti}1608/1612I only}, is larger than Cyprus, but smaller than Sicily and Sardinia, the only mediterranean islands to which it is inferior. Yet for worth and fertility, it is equal to the best. Ancient historiographers say that once it was famous for [its] one hundred cities, {1606E only{and was therefore called Hecatompolis}1606E only}. In the time of Plinius it had no more than forty. At this day, as P. Bellonius says, it has no more than three [cities] of any significance, that is, Candia [Heraklion], a settlement of the Venetians (after which the whole island is now named), Canea [Khama] and Rhetimo [Rhetimnon].
147.3. The circumference of the island is about 520 {1584G3Add & 1602G have instead{20.5}1584G3Add & 1602G instead} miles. It is everywhere full of mountains and hills, and therefore its inhabitants are much given to hunting. There is no river here that is navigable, nor any venomous or harmful beast. This island has excellent wine, which they here call Malvasia, which is from here exported to almost all countries, has made this island famous all over the world. This kind of wine is by the old writers called Pramnium, as Bellonius records. Volaterranus thinks that it is called Malvisia instead of Arvisia by adding one letter. And he furthermore adds that this kind of wine was first brought to Creta from cape Arvisium on the isle of Chios {1606E only{(now Scio)}1606E only} and therefore the wines were anciently called vina Arvisia.
147.4. There are a lot of cypress trees here of which they build their ships, which are so high that you can hardly see their tops, as Dominicus Niger reports, a most wonderful sight to behold. On this island a labyrinth was built by Dædalus in shape, as Plinius says, similar to that in Ægypt, a remnant of which, as George Alexander, lieutenant {1608/1612I instead{archbishop}1608/1612I instead} of this island} {1606E only{for the Venetians}1606E only}, reported in Volaterranus, has remained to this day.
147.5. There is a mountain, he says, hollowed out with many windings, which has only one narrow and straight entrance. The guide, a man who knows the place well, goes in front with a burning torch, showing the way in and out, and demonstrates [its] strange turns in dark corners. But Peter Bellonius, a diligent searcher of ancient monuments and antiquities and someone who in our times has diligently inspected this island, says that this was in former times a stone quarry, not a labyrinth, (in spite of the fact that the inhabitants call it that) which indeed is more probable, seeing that Plinius says that in his time no sign of it remained.
147.6. But take this description of the place by P. Bellonius: There is a place between Gnosium and Cortina which was perceived to be very convenient for cutting and digging stones, [and] the country people made a stone quarry of it, out of which many stones were dug, and there were [so] many windings and turnings left [as a result] that whoever would by himself go up and down this stone pit, would find so many crooked [paths] that he might easily lose his way.
147.7. Near the river Leth you will find this so-called pseudo-labyrinth which, if anyone would like to see it, he must necessarily use the help of someone or other of the country people of the next village to go in before him with a candle and guide him. But there are such a number of bats lodging in there that unless one is very careful, they will extinguish the candle with their wings by their flying up and down.
147.8. On the floor of the pit there are great heaps of bat dung, and [plenty of] their young ones, hanging at the sides and walls. The males {1606E instead has{females}1606E}{1584G3Add & 1602G have instead{the old ones}1584G3Add & 1602G instead}, when they no longer fly, do not attach or stick to the wall, nor do they stand on their feet, but there they hang on beams and rafters as our bats do, in clefts of timber.
147.9. So far Bellonius. A story similar to what Bellonius reports I have seen for myself when for recreation I travelled from Rome to Hostia, going during my journey underground at the port of Traianus, first hiring a guide to go in front of me with a light, so that I might see the ruins there. It was in ancient times dedicated to Jupiter because, as the ancients think, he was bred, brought up and finally buried here. Bordonius states that on the North side of this island there is a large cave under the earth, made by the labour and industry of man, forty cubits long and four wide, which they now call Jupiters tomb, and that at its top to this very day his epitaph remains, written in capital letters.
147.10. Strabo writes that the inhabitants have for a long time been considered the best seamen, being all surrounded by the sea and from there arose the saying Cretensis mare nescit, [a Cretian has no skill in sailing]. They have always been very infamous for their levity, deceit, lying and other such vices. From this came the proverbs Cretiza cum Cretensi [to play Cretan with a Cretan], {not in 1608/1612I{Cretensis Cretensem [one liar gives shit to another], Cretensis cum Æginate [?], E Creta raptus [robbed from Creta] &c}not in 1608/1612I}. {1606E only{about which you may read more in Erasmus' Chiliades}1606E only}. They are also blamed by St. Paul for the same faults. But I am afraid that what is commonly said about the Cretians may indeed truly be found in many other nations [as well], {not in 1608/1612I{I do not say all nations}not in 1608/1612I}, {1606E only{nay, I would [pray] to God that all nations wherever in all the world were not in this respect similar to the Cretians}1606E only}.
147.11. L. Cæcilius Metellus the Cretan first brought this island under the command of the Romans around the year 685 after the building of Rome. After that, it was subject to the emperors of Constantinople. Then it was given to Bonifacius of Monteserrato, by whom it was sold to the Venetians in the year of Christ 1194, to whom it belongs to this day. Among the ancient geographers Strabo has described this island accurately. Among the modern writers Dominicus Niger, Volaterranus, Vadianus, Zieglerus and Benedictus Bordonius have done the same, but most excellent among all others and [most exact] is [the description of] Jodocus Ghistelius in his journey to Jerusalem, and Bellonius in his Observations.
147.12. Jodocus à Meggen has also written something about this island in his Peregrination to Jerusalem, worth looking at and reading. Our readers owe the design of this map to that nobleman the honorable Sign. Francisco Superantius, a gentleman from Venice, not only a lover {1606E only{of mathematics}1606E only} and an earnest student of geography, but [also] someone esteemed worthy in all kinds of learning. {1608/1612I only{Filippo Pigafetta confirms to have visited this stone quarry and labyrinth, which lies at the foot of a mountain Messarea towards the South, close to the city of Gortine, where the stones were being made, where signs of cartwheels can still be seen, according to what Bellonius writes about the bats}1608/1612I only}.

147.13. {not in 1608/1612I{About certain islands in the sea}not in 1608/1612I} {1606E & 1608/1612I only{ARCHIPELAGO}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.

147.14. The Ægæan sea (now called Archipelago{1584G3Add & 1602G instead{the high sea}1584G3Add & 1602G instead) contains many islands, [such] as the Cyclades, Sporades and various others, of which we have described some on this map. NEGROPONTE was once called Eubœa. Its main city was then called Chalcis, now they call it Negroponte {1608/1612I only{or Calcide}1608/1612I only}, from which the whole island took its name {1608/1612I only{according to Pisteßo}1608/1612I only}. Not long ago it was wholly subject to the Venetians, from whom it was taken by the Turks around the year of Christ 1471.
147.15. It yields plenty of [olive] oil, corn and wine, and is for all things which the earth yields very fertile. In particular, it produces very good wood for making ships and galleys, as an anonymous writer reports, who [also] wrote about its sacking. The inhabitants (which also applies almost generally to all the isles in this sea) are partly Greeks, and partly Turks, but each use their own language and religion. NICSIA, in old times Naxos, is considered as one of the most fertile islands in this sea. It yields a reasonable amount of wine.
147.16. Some think that there is a vein of gold here, but such is the laziness and negligence of the people that it is as yet unknown where it is. Here is a kind of wasp whose sting is supposed to be deadly. Here are very many bats. It used to belong to Giovanni Quirino, a nobleman of Venice. After that it came into the possession of a certain captain Jacobo Crispo, who was driven away by Solimus the emperor of the Turks. Therefore it is now inhabited by Turks and Jews.
147.17. SANTORINI was called Therasia by the ancients. This island rises gradually from its shore to the middle of it, until it turns into a high mountain, upon whose top there is the castle Scaro. The people live mostly on fishing. This also, as the others, is under the yoke of the Turks. SCIO, the old writers called it Chios, is all full of trees and mountains. It is watered by many small brooks. [Its] Vinum arvisium (they now call it Malvasia) was from here first exported to Candia.
147.18. Only on this island does the mastic tree grow, the gum of which is carried to all countries of Europe {1606E has instead{to all Christian countries}1606E}. Andronicus Palæologus, the emperor of Constantinople gave it to the Genoans who kept it in their possession until the year 1565 {1609/1612/1641S instead{1465}1609/1612/1641S instead}, when Soliman took it from them through trickery. The women of this island are recommended above all others for their grace and beauty. {1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{About this you may read in Laonicus' tenth book}1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. RHODVS still retains its ancient name. It has a city with the same name, very strong and defensible, with a very large harbour.
147.19. It is very famous for its Colossus of the sun, a statue seventy cubits high, which broke off at the knees because of an earthquake, was overthrown and fell to the ground. Certain Egyptians, as Dominicus Niger reports, {not in 1584G3Add & 1602G{in the time of Constantius the emperor}not in 1584G3Add & 1602G}, crossing the sea from Alexandria to Rhodus, amongst other things toppled this Colossus, broke it into pieces, and took the brass [fragments] away on 900 camels. The island was given by Emanuel, emperor of Constantinople, to the knights of Jerusalem who for a long time repeatedly defended it against the furious attacks of the Turks, until in the year 1522, when Soliman besieged it via the surrounding sea, they were forced to give it up and escaped to the isle of Malta.
147.20. About these [matters], see more in Theodoricus Adamæus. STALIMENE was once called Lemnos {1606E only{by the Cretians}1606E only}. Read about it in our description of Cyprus. MILO was in former times called Melos. It has a silver mine where they also find sardonix, a precious stone. METELLINO is called Lesbos by old writers. It has a city with the same name, shaken and ruined by an earthquake. {not in 1606E{All that is left of it nowadays is a strong castle}not in 1606E}. They are under the government of the Turk, as the others, yet they retain their old language and religion.
147.21. CERIGO was in former times called Cythera. {not in 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{It has many ports but not of great capacity and rather dangerous. The inhabitants are Greeks, and retain the Greek religion; they are now under the rule of the Venetians}not in 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L}.
{1588S, not in 1602G{SCARPANTO was called Carpathus by the ancients, or, as Homerus writes it, Crapathus, after which the sea around this place was called Mare Carpathium. It is situated almost half way between Candia and Rhodus. In circumference it is is sixty {1606E has instead{forty}1606E instead}, or as others claim seventy {1606E has instead{fifty}1606E instead} miles. Eustathius in his commentaries on Homerus says that it is rough and full of mountains, and was called Porphyris in old times because of its abundance of purples {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{([in Greek lettering]porphyra}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}{1606E only{(a kind of fish from which purple dye [is obtained])}1606E only} found in the sea, and [also] Tetrapolis after the four cities of this island.
147.22. {not in 1588S{From this island originated the expression Carpathius leporem, as the same {1608/1612I only{Piteßo &}1608/1612I only} Eustathius report from Julius Pollux. It deals with those people who do something, and after it has been done they repent [their deed. This is] because these islanders first brought hares into this country, and a short while after, perceiving how they ate and spoiled their corn, they [tried to] eradicate them again}not in 1588S}. {1592L{It has many harbours, but not large ones, nor very safe. The inhabitants speak Greek, and embrace the Greek religion, and are subject to the Venetians}1592L, not in 1602G}.
147.23. You may read more about these islands in Bordonius and Porcacchius, who have written specific treatises about these islands in the Italian tongue}1584L3Add/1584L, 1584G3Add, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1585 French 3 Add/1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

147.24. {1585F3Add/1587F{Candia.

147.25. This island, which used to be called Creta, is now called Candia. It is larger than Cyprus, but smaller than Sicily or Sardinia, only being inferior in size to these two in all the Mediterranean, but is nevertheless similar to all other islands in fertility and importance. The ancient writers state that it used to have no less than 100 cities, and Plinius reports in his time about forty of them. Nowadays, according to Bellonius, there are only three namely Candia [Heraklion], a settlement of the Venetians from which the island derives its name, Canea [Khama] and Rhetimo [Rhetimno].
147.26. The circumference of the island is five hundred and twenty thousand strides. It has mountains everywhere, and for this reason its inhabitants are great hunters. There are no navigable rivers here, nor harmful animals. It is an island of great renown, because of its noble wine, called malvasia, which is exported all over the world {not in 1598/1610/1613D{and makes it known to everyone}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. There is also an abundance of cypress trees here, to build ships. These trees grow very tall, {1587F & 1598F only{according to Dominicus Niger}1587F & 1598F} so that nothing more marvellous can be seen.
147.27. This island contained a labyrinth, {1587F & 1598F only{according to Plinius}1587F & 1598F only} made by the artist Dædalus. There should be some remnants of this according to Georgius Alexander, prelate and prime administrator of this island, as related by Volaterranus. He says it is a mountain on all sides hollowed out, which can be approached via one narrow road only. A guide leads the way with a torch in his hand showing a maze that can hardly be conquered. But Petrus Bellonius, a diligent researcher of old matters who has inspected this island has said that there was a stone quarry here once, and not a labyrinth, which however is called a labyrinth by the common people. This seems probable because Plinius writes that in his time there were no traces of a labyrinth to be seen. {1587F & 1598F only{But let us add the description which Bellonius gives of this place. There is, he says, a place between Gnossus (which we now call Cniosa)[Knossos] and Gortine from which in former times much stone was taken. The inhabitants have taken so much stone out, that many detours in the mountain were made so that when anyone walks in this quarry easily loses his way. This false labyrinth is adjacent to the river Lethe which if anyone enters into it, he must ask some villagers to accompany him with candles}1587F & 1598F only}.
147.28. {1598/1610/1613D has instead{This stone quarry is the reason why the mountain in many places has been hollowed out}1598/1610/1613D instead}. You also find such a multitude of bats here, that you may fear that they extinguish all the light with their wings. {1587F & 1598F only{In the middle of the quarry, on the floor, there are great heaps of bat dung, and [plenty of] their young ones, hanging at the sides and walls. The males, when they can no longer fly, do not attach or stick to the wall, nor do they stand on their feet, but there they hang on beams and rafters as our bats do, in clefts of timber and holes in walls. So far Bellonius. (A story similar to what Bellonius reports I have seen for myself when I travelled from Rome to Hostia, going during my journey underground at the port of Traianus, first hiring a guide to go in front of me with a light, so that I might see the ruins there)}1587F & 1598F only}. This island also used to belong to Jupiter who was born and raised here, and buried as well. Bordonius claims that at the North side of this island, a cave has been dug here by human hands with a length of 40 cubits, and 4 cubits wide, which to the present day is called the grave of Jupiter where you can also see his epitaph.
147.29. Its inhabitants used to be good sailors, familiar with the sea, because the island is surrounded by it, says Strabo, and hence the Latin saying: Cretensis mare nescit, that is, those from Creta do not know the sea, {not in 1587F & 1598F{as if you were to say: Cripples cannot jump}not in 1587F & 1598F}. Their prattling and lying and deceit is also mentioned by the ancients, {1587F & 1598F only{as Greek and Roman proverbs testify}1587F & 1598F only}{not in 1587F & 1598F{and were therefore also known to Saint Paul, and mentioned. But I am afraid that whatever is being said about them in this respect, might be said about many other peoples as well, if not about all nations}not in 1587F & 1598F}. This island has been brought under Roman rule by L. Seculius Metellus {1587F & 1598F only{the Cretian in the year 685 after the foundation of Rome}1587F & 1598F only}, then it was ruled by the emperors of Constantinople, then it belonged to Bonifatius of Monferrat who sold it to the Venetians in the year 1194, to whom it is still obdedient to the present day. {1587F & 1598F only{Among the ancients, Strabo has described it well, and among the modern writers so have Dominicus Niger, Volaterranus, Vadianus, Zieglerus, and Benedictus Bordonius, but in our times Ioos Ghistele in his Voyage to Jerusalem and Bellonius in his Observations are the best. Ioos de Meggen also says something in his Peregrination to Jerusalem which contributes to the knowledge about this. The picture of this map the reader owes to the noble lord Francisco Superantius from Venice, who is not only diligent in geography, but also a great lover and admirer of all elegant and beautiful things}1587F & 1598F only}.

147.30. Islands of the sea called archipelago.

147.31. On this map we show some excellent islands of what was formerly called Mare Ægeum [the Ægean sea], and now Archipelago, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{such as the Cyclades, Sporades and many others which we display for you on this page}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, such as the island called Negroponte, {not in 1587F & 1598F{once Euboea. The city on this island used to be called Chalcis, and is now also called Negroponte}not in 1587F & 1598F}. It used to be ruled by the Venetians, but the Turks took it away from them in the year 1471. [Olive] oil, corn, wine and other produce from the earth occur here in abundance, and it also has very suitable wood to build ships and galleys with, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{as an anonymous source tells in his description}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. The inhabitants, as is usual on these islands, are both Greeks and Turks, each with their own language and religion.
147.32. Nixia, once called Naxos is also counted among the more fertile islands. It has very much wine. It is believed that on this island there is somewhere a gold mine, but it has never been found because of the sloth and laziness of its inhabitants. There are also wasps here whose sting is deadly for humans. There is also a lot of bats here. The island used to belong to Giovanni Quirini, a Venetian nobleman, then to a certain duke called Ioannes Crispus, and then Solimus, the Turkish emperor who expelled him. That is why it is presently inhabited by Turks and Jews.
147.33. Santorini used to be called Therasia by the ancients. This island, from its shores onwards, generally rises up until it is a high mountain in the middle of it, on which you find a castle called Scaro. Its inhabitants live mostly on fish. This island, like the others, has come under Turkish rule.
147.34. Scio, called Chios by the ancients, is everywhere covered by hills and mountains, watered by many brooks, and it is supposed to have brought the malvasia [wine] to Candia. Here mastic is produced, and exported all over Europe. It was by Andronicus, emperor of Constantinople, donated to the Genoans, who ruled it until the year 1565. Then Soliman took it by deceit. The women of this island surpass all in grace and beauty.
147.35. Rhodus still retains its old name. It has a city with the same name which is very strong, and which has a spacious harbour. Because of a large statue of the sun, 70 cubits tall, this island was once famous, but it collapsed at the knees as the result of an earthquake. Some Egyptians under Constantius, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{as Dominicus Niger says}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, have further demolished this statue, and they have loaded 900 camels {1598/1610/1613D only{with its copper}1598/1610/1613D only}.
147.36. This island was by Emanuel, emperor of Constantinople donated to the knights of Jerusalem, who kept it bravely in their numerous fights against the Turks until the year 1522, when they were forced to give it up, being attacked by Soliman by land and by sea, and they moved to the island of Malta. {1587F & 1598F only{About this island, see what Theodoricus Adamæus writes}1587F & 1598F only}.
147.37. Stalimene was once called Lemnos. {1587F & 1598F only{See what we have written about it on the map of Cyprus}1587F & 1598F only}. Milos was called Melos by the ancients. Here is a silver mine and the stone called sardonius {1587F & 1598F have instead{cornaline}1587F & 1598F instead}. Metellino was once called Lesbos. It has a city with the same name which has been destroyed by an earthquake and all that remains is a strong castle. It is now subject to the Turks, but it has retained its language and religion. Cerigo was called Cythera by the ancient writers. {1587F & 1598F only{Its has many harbours, but only of limited size, and therefore dangerous. Those who live here speak Greek and have the Greek religion. They are under the rule of the Venetians. Who wants to know more about these islands should read Bordonius and Porcacchius, who have devoted specific books to this in Italian}1587F & 1598F only, which end here}. {1598/1610/1613D only{Scarpanto was once called Carpathus. It lies halfway between Rhodes and Creta and measures in circumference 60 or 70 thousand strides. It is mountainous, has many harbours which are not wide nor safe. Its inhabitants speak Greek and retain the Greek religion, although they are ruled by the Venetians}1598/1610/1613D only which ends here}.

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