Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 143

Text, one version only, translated from the 1573 Dutch 1st Add/1573 Dutch, 1573 German 1st Add/1573 German, 1573 Latin 1st Add, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 French 1st Add/1574 French, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 French, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

143.1. {1573D1Add{The duchy of CARINTHIA, {1606E{or KARNTEN}1606E}, and the county palatine of GÖRZ.

143.2. This duchy of Karnten {not in 1573G1Add/1573G{(which according to Rithmeier should rather be spelled as Carnithia)}not in 1573G1Add/1573G} has on its East and North Steiermark, [and] on its West and South the Alps and Friuli. Carniola is part of this province. In this country there are many valleys and hills [which are] very good wheat grounds [and] many lakes and rivers, among which the main one is the river Dravus [Drau] {1606E only{or, as they now call it, the Dra}1606E only}.
143.3. The more famous cities of this area are St. Veit, Villach and Klagenfurt. St. Veit, the metropolitan city, is a city of importance, having a very large market place where you find an excellent fountain for running water, which we saw being built in 1558. The diameter or width of this cistern we measured to be more than about seven feet. This cistern was made of one big stone of white marble, which had been taken out of the earth among other monuments of antiquity, {1606E only{a thing worth seeing}1606E only}. As you leave the city towards Klagenfurt, there is a wide plain that offers itself to your view, covered with many ruins of ancient buildings, commonly called Solfeldt. Paracelsus in his Chronicle of this country (if it is indeed his writing) calls it Liburnia, I do not know on what grounds.
143.4. I prefer to think that it was Solvense, the city of Solve, which Plinus praises it {not in 1573G1Add/1573G{as Carnis}not in 1573G1Add/1573G}, and as having been here a long time ago. This is the place where the princes used to be crowned in the open air, a strange and unusual kind of ceremony, described in detail by Pius the second in his Europa. Villach, a town full of houses with gorgeously painted gables and histories, presents a beautiful and excellent spectacle to its beholders.
143.5. It is located on the Drau in a plain enclosed by very high steep rocks, with a great stone bridge crossing the river. Then there is Klagenfurt, a strong city, anciently called Claudia, as Lazius says. There are some who write that the citizens of this city are so outrageous about thieves that upon the least suspicion of theft, a man will be hanged without examination, and then the third day after he has been hanged, they sit on trial [against him].
143.6. If it turns out that they find him to have been executed unjustly, they bury him honourably, but if justly, they let him hang for some more time. But Rithmeier says that this is merely a fable. Moreover [there is] Friesach, a very ancient town, [and] St. Leonhard, Wolfsberg &c. are towns of this country too. In former times the Iapydes were supposed to have lived in this area. The sovereignty and jurisdiction of this country belong now to the dukes of Austria, but as regards ecclesiastical jurisdiction it partly belongs to the bishop of Salzburg and partly to the patriarch of Aquileia, as Paracelsus says in his Chronicle just referred to.
143.7. {not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{But in the same place he has the most ridiculous etymology for the name of this province, which he pretends to have been derived from the Romans, namely that it should be named Carinthia after the expression Caritas intima, [that is:] intimate love and affection, as if the first inhabitants who settled here would have desired to have their country be called by a name fetched from a foreign nation and [in a] language they could not understand.
143.8. [If] the reader [is] not satisfied with what has been written down by us here, let him have recourse to Sebastian Münster, Sabellicus and Pius II &c}not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F & 1587F}. {1595L but not in 1602G{I understand that a certain Ioannes Salvianus has also surveyed this country, [but] I have not yet seen his description}1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G}.
143.9. Goritiĉ Palatinus, {1606E instead{The county palatine of Görz,}1606E instead} which also belongs to the {1573G1Add/1573G{arch-}1573G1Add/1573G}dukes of Austria, is so named after Görz, the chief city of this country, called Goricia by the Italians (for it lies in Italy beyond the Alps) [or] after Ptolemĉus Iulium Carnicum, as Leander thinks. Amasĉus, {not in 1573G1Add/1573G{as the same Leander says}not in 1573G1Add/1573G}, concludes from the various antiquities one can still find here that Noreia was once located here. {not in 1608/1612I{It is a town situated at the mouth of the river Wipach {1573L1Add, not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{(formerly called Fluvius frigidus [cold river])}1573L1Add, not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, {1573L1Add{I mean, where the Wipach empties into the river Natisone}1573L1Add, not in 1608/1612I}. {1608/1612I only{There is also the fortress of Gradisca, built by the Venetians against the threatening Turks, only small, but with its walls and steep sides and its location impregnable, standing under the protection of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria, situated at the river Lisonzo, where it joins the river called Freddo [cold] by the Romans, and near the [river] Vipao, or Wipach, which originates in the Alps, from some little spring, cold beyond anyone's belief, where there is a large building with the same name of Goritia, as much as 8 miles lower, opposite that fortress of Gradisca, along which you find a cart road to Lubljana, Triest and Croatia, held against the Turks to prevent them from entering Italy. This is written by Filippo Pigafetta for the benefit of the reader. The river Wipach does not join the river Natisone, but the river Lisonzo, & this does not happen in Goritia, but eight miles to the south, opposite the fortress of Gradisca, this by way of supplying additional information for the reader}1608/1612I only}.

143.10. HISTRIA {1602G & 1606E only{or ISTEREICH}1602G & 1606E only}[Istria].

143.11. It is generally known (as Plinius says in his Natural History) that every man best and most accurately describes that country in which he was born {1606E only{and brought up}1606E only}. And a few lines earlier the same author says this: I will follow no man altogether, but only as far as I find him to speak in the most probable manner and according to the truth [concerning his region and native city]. And therefore, here in this place (which I do almost everywhere in these discussions of my maps) I have decided that from all those who have described this province, to offer to the view of the reader a great description reflecting the features of this place by Ludovicus Vergerius, a native of this country of Histria {1580/1589G, not in 1606E{shortly, as much as this page can contain}1580/1589G, not in 1606E}.
143.12. This man says in the Cosmography of Münster that this peninsula, from the inner bay where you find Triest now lying on the shore to St. Veit, a town situated in the gulf of Fanatico on the river Fiume, extends for a length of more than 200 miles. The whole country, he says, is not very level or flat, yet its mountains are neither very high, nor steep or barren, {not in 1606E{better called hills}not in 1606E}, but plentifully furnished with vines, olives and other fruit trees, and abundant corn, pastures and cattle. Only in that part which bends {1598F, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{towards the bay Golfo di Quernero}1598F, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, {not in 1608/1612I{once called the gulf of Fanatico}not in 1608/1612I} it has a very high mountain which they commonly call Monte maior.
143.13. This is the first [landmark] to present itself to the eyes of the seamen who come sailing to this place. On its top there is a very excellent spring of fresh water. {1573G1Add/1573G only{From this abundant spring it waters all the land lying below this mountain}1573G1Add/1573G only}. It yields many rare herbs and plants of singular virtues, which attract physicians from far away to come here {1606E only{at the right time of the year}1606E only}, to climb it with great exertions {1606E only{and dangers}1606E only}.
143.14. Istria has three rivers, the Formio {1608/1612I only{or Risano, where you find Dragogna}1608/1612I only}, Nauportus {1608/1612I only{with Quieto, a splendid and secure harbour}1608/1612I only} and Arsia {1608/1612I only{which retains its name [in the memory of] country people, and this third tiver empties in the gulf of Quarnaro}1608/1612I only}. {not in 1608/1612I{The first is by the people of the country called Risano, the second Quieto and the last, {1606E only{namely Arsa, which}1606E only} empties into the bay {1606E only{of Quernero or}1606E only} of Fanatico}not in 1608/1612I}, and it is now the utmost border with Italy. The cities of Histria are Mugla, Justinopolis, Isola, Pirano {1606E only(or} Piran, as I think it is named on this map)}1606E only}, Humago, Emonia, Parenzo, Orsara, Rubino, Pola, and St. Veit, all of them harbour cities.
143.15. [Then] inland: Pinguento, Montona, Portula, Grisignana, Bulle, St. Lorenzo, Doi castelli, St. Vincenzo, Val Adignano, Pomerano, Albona, Flanona, Petina, Galignano, Coslaco and Pisino are places inland. The most famous city of this whole country is Iustinopolis {1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{which they commonly call Cavo d'Istria}1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}, the head of Istria. {not in 1573G1Add/1573G{Plinius calls it Ĉgidia}not in 1573G1Add/1573G}. It is located on a rock in the sea, far distant from the main land, to which it is joined by a long bridge.
143.16. This city, as many others in Istria, is subject to the Venetians, the rest are under the government of the Austrians &c. {1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{Next to the ancient geographers read also Leander, Volaterranus and Dominicus Niger}1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. {1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G{From the ancients, Cassiodorus in his twelfth book of Variar. has [also] much about this province}1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G}.

143.17. ZARA and SEBENICO.

143.18. We think that ZARA was once called Iadera, [but] others from the area assert that this territory was anciently called Liburnia. SEBENICO [Sibenik] is what the ancient writers called Sicum. Both are harbour cities located on the Hadriatic sea, [and are] under the jurisdiction of the Venetians. In that place on our map where you see certain ruins of old, decayed buildings, Dominicus Niger says the city of Essena once stood, now level with the ground, and the place is now called Beribir, where [tablets with] epigrams in Latin and Greek and many other monuments of antiquity are still to be seen.
143.19. The author of this map, whose name we do not know, calls it Bergane}1573D1Add/1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}. {1573G1Add/1573G{About this part of Illyria read the same Dominicus Niger's sixth book of his Geography}1573D1Add/1573D, 1573G1Add/1573G, 1573L1Add/1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L & 1602G end here}. {1595L{I add what I read in Mr. S. Cornelius Scepper, once ambassador of Ferdinand, the emperor of Rome, who has the following words in his Journal for Soliman, {1606E only{the great Turk}1606E only}: At Zara we saw the church of St. Ioannis de Malvasia [a kind of wine], so named because the sailors of a small vessel with a cargo of wine, being in danger of shipwreck, that if they would land safely, vowed that they would build a church of which the mortar would be mixed with this wine, which they did accordingly}1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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