Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 140

Text, scholarly version only, translated from the 1595 Latin 5 Add/1595 Latin, 1597 German 5 Add., 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish Latin editions:

140.1. {1595L5Add{APVLIA, {1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{now called PUGLIA}1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only}, {1606E only{or TERRA DI OTRANTO}1606E only}.

140.2. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{We have composed this discussion about this country on the basis of the treatise by Antonius Galatæus which he wrote about the situation of Iapygia}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E only{now called Terra di Bari}1606E only}. This country, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{he says}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, with respect to its location, finds itself in the most temperate place of the world. By various authors it has been called by different names. Aristoteles and Herodotus call it Iapygia, others Peucetia, others [again] Mesapia, others [again] Magna Græcia {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{[that is] Great Greece}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only}, others [again] Puglia, others [again] Calabria (for that which is now called Calabria used to be called Brutia).
140.3. The corn, vegetables and fruits of this country are of the best. The oats from this soil are as good as the barley from other countries, {1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{and the barley is as good as [others] wheat}1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. Melons of a most pleasing taste and lemons everywhere grow in great abundance. Medicinal herbs, of greater strength than elsewhere, are here everywhere very common. The climate is very wholesome, [and] the soil is neither dry nor marshy. But these very great gifts and blessings seem to be offset by some bad news, for here nature breeds a most venomous kind of spider {1606E only{(the Greek call it [in Greek spelling] phalanks or arachne, the Romans phalangium or Arachneus)}1606E only} whose poisonous bite is only cured by music of the flute and drum.
140.4. Here is also a venomous serpent {1606E only{{which the Greek call}1606E only} Chersydros, {1606E only{the Romans Natrix terrestris, the land snake. We call it, if I am not mistaken an Adder}1606E only}. And here is a kind of locust which hurts and spoils all things they land upon. The cities of this country, more famous in old times, were Tarentum, {1606E only{now Taranto}1606E only}, located between two seas, exceedingly well provided with fish. [It] has a form resembling a long island. This city is invincible in everyone's judgment. [Then] Callipolis {1606E only{(now Gallipoli, [but] Plinius called it Anxa)}1606E only}, a city situated at the end of a promontory, extending into the sea but with a much narrower isthmos, in some places hardly as narrow as a cart road.
140.5. It is very strong, and surrounded by high cliffs. From the mainland there is only one entrance, at which there is a very strong castle. Hydruntum {1606E & 1608/1612I only; 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{(they call it Otranto)}1606E & 1608/1612I only; 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} is the main city and (which means a little more) metropolitan of the whole peninsula or half-island and that is not without reason. For whether it is in terms of its antiquity, or the humanity of its citizens, together with [their] valour and great magnanimity, it has always been considered a very famous and worthy city.
140.6. It has a very good and capacious harbour, but not so safe against the raging blasts of the North wind {1608/1612I instead{the wind from Greece}1608/1612I instead}. It was once very strong and easy to defend, but now it lies almost level with the ground. The adjacent fields are very fruitful, full of springs, and always green. From there the Montes Cerauni, certain hills of Epirus {1606E only{(now called Cimera and Canina)}1606E only}{1608/1612I instead{the mountains of Cimera of Albania}1608/1612I instead} may easily be seen.
140.7. Here is the end of the Hadriatic and Ionian seas, as Plinius states. Brundusium, {1606E & 1608/1612I only {now Brindisi}1606E only) or Brandisio}1608/1612I only}, a famous city, has as notable a harbour as any elsewhere in the world. The inner harbour is enclosed by castles and a huge chain. The outer harbour is here and there beset with rocks and small islands, but its mouth, according to Alphonsus is so clogged and sandy that there is only passage of entry for small ships and two-oared barges.
140.8. It has in former times been a very populous city, but now it is only little inhabited. These are the chief coastal cities. Whoever would like to know more details about the ancient names, location, antiquities, and individual stories concerning the inland cities and towns, we refer to the learned discussion by Galatæus, written about this native country of his, to which whoever wants so may add the description by Leander, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{[and] I am convinced that the thirsty reader would not know what more to ask for}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.

140.9. CALABRIA.

140.10. Gabriel Barrius belonging to the Franciscan order has described Calabria in five books which have been printed full of mistakes in Rome. From him we have derived the following details: CALABRIA, he says, a country of Italy {not in 1606E{at its extreme borders}not in 1606E}, is in form and fashion not unlike a tongue, lies between the upper and lower sea straits. It begins at the lower sea (the Greeks call it the Tyrrhenian sea, {1606E only{the Romans the Mediterranean or Midland-sea}1606E only}) from the river Talao, {1606E only{which runs into the bay of Policastro}1606E only}.
140.11. At the upper sea, the Ionian sea {1606E only{[is] what the Greek call it)}1606E only}, the river Siris {1606E only{(also once called Senno)} flows along {1606E only{until it comes to the straits of Faro di Messano and}1606E only} the city of {not in 1606E{Euripium and}not in 1606E} Reggio. And then, being divided into two by the mountain range Apennine {1606E only{(here they call it Aspro monte)}1606E only} it ends at two capes or promontories {not in 1606E{in the shape of two horns}not in 1606E}, the right one called Leucopetra {1606E only{(by them Capo de Leucopetra)}1606E only}, the left one Lacinium {1606E only{(vulgarly by them called Cabo delle colonne or Cabo dell'Alice)}1606E only}.
140.12. Not only the plains and the fields, but even the hilly places, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{like [is the case in] Latium}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} {1606E only{or Campania}1606E only} are well provided with water. Whatever is necessary for the maintenance of mans life is yielded by this country in great abundance, [so] it needs no foreign commodities but is able to live of [what it provides] by itself. In general, Calabria has a good and fertile soil, [and] it is not bothered by fens, lakes and bogs, but is always green, affording good pastures for cattle and excellent grounds for all sorts of grain. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{The fountains are numerous, and fairly clear and wholesome} not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
140.13. The mountains, open to every cool blast of wind, are wonderfully fertile for corn, vines and trees of various kinds, which provide great profit to its inhabitants. The valleys are pleasant and fruitful. The shady groves and woods afford many pleasures and delights. The excellent meadows and pastures are richly covered with herbs and sweet smelling flowers, and ever running streams. And among other things, here is plenty of wholesome food with which they feed and fatten their cattle. Here also grow many medicinal herbs of sovereign virtue against various different diseases.
140.14. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{It brings forth various plants, [such] as the plane tree, Vitex {1606E only{or Agnus castus}1606E only}, the turpentine tree, the oleander {1606E has instead{olive tree}1606E instead}, Siliqua Silvestris, {1606E only{[that is] arbute or strawberry tree}1606E only}, wild saffron, madder, licorice, [and] tubera or sowbread}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. It also has some hot baths, continually issuing from their springs, which cure aches and many other similar illnesses. In various places there are salt water springs of which they make some kind of brine. It is well watered by many fine rivers, and those are well provided with various kinds of fresh water fish. The sea on each side also yields plenty of fish, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{tunas as well as sword-fishes and lampreys}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. In many places here the best coral is found, both white and red.
140.15. Here hunting and hawking is most pleasant, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{for in these places various different sorts of wild beasts live, and many birds and fowls breed and build [nests] here. [Then there are] wild boars, deer, hinds, goats, hares, foxes, lynxes, otters, squirrels, martens, badgers, ferrets, porcupines, [and] tortoises, both of the water and of the land. It is everywhere full of fowls, pheasants, partridges, quails, wood-cocks, ring-doves, crows &c. as also of many kinds of hawks. It maintains some herds of cattle and flocks of sheep and goats}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. It breeds excellent horses, very swift and of great courage.
140.16. Metals were found here in old times, and to this day it still abounds with various kinds of minerals, having indeed everywhere mines with gold, silver, iron, salt, marble, alabaster, crystal, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{marcasite, red lead or vermillion, copper}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, alume, brimstone &c. [Also] many kinds of corn, wheat, silage, beer-barley, rye, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{trimino (we call it Turkish wheat I think)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, barley, rice, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and sesame, [all in] infinite quantities. It also abounds with all kinds of pulse (legumina the Romans call it)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, oil, wine, [and] honey, all the best of their kind.
140.17. There are here everywhere orchards full of oranges, lemons and lemon trees. They also make plenty of excellent silk here, far better than any kind of silk made in other places in Italy. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{The cotton bush (Gossipium) grows here plentifully}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. But what shall I say about the kind temperature of the air? For here the fields both in winter and summer are continually green. But above all things, there is nothing which makes my point more soundly than that airy dew or heavenly honey which they call manna that comes down everywhere from above, and is here gathered in great abundance. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{So that which the Israelites in the wilderness admired and considered as a strange wonder, is here provided by kind nature of her own accord}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
140.18. It is also adorned with many good market towns, where markets and fairs are held every year {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{every second year}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}{1606E instead{at certain times in the year}1606E instead}. In some places here the ancient custom of the Romans is still preserved at funerals and burials of the dead, where a chief mourner {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{(Præfica they call her)}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S} is hired to go in front of the mourners guiding their mournful rituals, keeping time to their lamentations. The funeral being done and all ceremonies performed, friends and kindred, bringing their own food and picnic gear, banquet all together at the dead persons house.
140.19. The women of this country as a matter of course, out of modesty or because the water of this area is good and wholesome, drink nothing but water. It is [considered to be] a shame for any woman to drink wine, except if she is very old, or is in childbirth &c}1597G5Add & 1602G end here}. See more [about this] in the same author. Cassiodorus also, {1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S only{in his Variae}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S only} has in various places a lot about this country}1595L5Add/1595L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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