Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 134

Text, scholarly version only, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition.

134.1{1608/1612I{Romagna {1609/1612L instead{Romanula or Romaniola}1609/1612L instead}.
134.1a. Romagna was once a part of Gallia Togata, deriving its name from the Boij French who left Gallia and built their dwellings, after having expelled the Etruscans. When afterwards {1609/1612/1641S only{when the Romans made war with the Ligurians}1609/1612/1641S only} the Roman consuls Flaminius and Æmilius constructed roads in this area, the area was called Flaminia, by others Æmilia. Later, because of the great loyalty of these peoples to the Romans in resisting the Longobards, pope Hadrianus and also Charles the Great were pleased to honour them with the name of Rome. It is therefore that nowadays the Latin word Romandiola or Romaniola is attached to this area.
134.2. In the East its borders extend {not in 1609/1612/1641S{during summer and autumn to the Hadriatic sea, in the spring}not in 1609/1612/1641S} to the river Isaurus, now called Foglia, {1609/1612/1641S only{which separate it from the area of Ancona}1609/1612/1641S only}. In the West and North to the river Po and the Venetian swamps, and in the South to the Apennines {1609/1612/1641S only{which separate it from Tuscany}1609/1612/1641S only}, crowning it as a theatre with its lovely and fertile hills. Its distance from the pole or its latitude {1609/1612/1641S instead{elevation}1609/1612/1641S instead} is 44 degrees, its longitude 33. It is rich in olive oil, honey and blackberries and the finest flax, and in the higher areas it has excellent wine. In the vallies there is an abundance of corn and other produce, and also of salt, pine cones, and nuts, exported to all of Italy.
134.3. It comprises nine cities, which are the following: Ravenna, Cervia, Rimini, Cesena, Bertinoro, Sarsina, Forli, Faenza and Imola, and also some smaller places and settlements for its citizens and nobility, and countless castles and villages, spread throughout the area. Ravenna is the metropolis, once its capital, praised by the ancients, and called the largest by Strabo. It received the Christian faith from the holy Apollinaris from Antiochia, who was sent here from Rome by the holy Peter, the first among the apostles, and settled here as its first archbishop. After Apollinaris, it was a miraculous sign provided by the apparition of a dove to announce a series of eleven archbishops, the holy Severus being the last one, who supported the council of Sardis in its efforts concerning the holy Athanasius.
134.4. Its harbour was famous, where, first in the name of the Roman Republic, and later according to an imperial mandate, a fully equipped fleet guarded its coasts for security. Here was also a lighthouse guiding the navigation of sailors with its nightly light.
134.5. Ravenna was once situated, according to Strabo, in sea swamps. It expanded with buildings erected on wooden foundations, and is now at a distance of two miles from the sea. Its circumference is three miles, and it resembles a soldier's shield in shape. It used to be the seat of the Gothic rulers, and after that of the exarchs who governed Italy in the name of the Eastern {1609/1612/1641S instead{Greek}1609/1612/1641S instead} emperors. That is why today Ravenna is still called of the exarchate, and the rulers of this province are called the governors of the exarchate of Ravenna.
134.6. Before the arrival of the Gothic kings and the exarchs, it was inhabited by emperor Honorius, who made it the seat of the Western Roman Empire. The same applies to Valentianus the third, who was born there from emperor Constantius and Galla Placidia, the sister of Honorius. It is embraced by two rivers, from the North and the West by the river Montone and from the South by the river Ronco. Both rivers join in the city, {not in 1609/1612L{according to some forming the ancient channel of Viti}not in 1609/1612L} and together empty into the sea. It has very ancient churches of great beauty, including the cathedral built at the time of the emperors Honorius and Arcadius, and also the church of the Holy Vitale {1609/1612/1641S only{the martyr}1609/1612/1641S only}, founded by emperor Justitianus and shaped like Saint Sophia in Constantinople, which is a circular bastion.
134.7. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{This is where the body of the holy Vitale, who died a martyr's death in this city, has been buried}not in 1609/1612/1641S} {1608/1612I only{like also Saint Apollinarus and Saint Ursinicus}1608/1612I only}. Along the coast there is an abundance of pine trees, full of the best seeds. Plinius praises the asparagus and tarbot of Ravenna. Also as regards scholarship and dignity, it has produced some significant men, such as cardinal Pietro Damianus, {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{& bishop Ostiense}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} & pope Johannes the tenth and quite a few others, famous for their martial arts. For some time it was ruled by the family of the Traversari, and after that by the Polentians, who were papal rulers and vicarii around the year 1441. Then, once it came under the rule of the Venetians, it was rebuilt by pope Julius the second in the year of our Lord 1509.
134.8. Cervia, a small city, is at some distance from the sea, not very populous, but very productive in the yield of its public salt. Hence the saying goes: One Cerviola yields more than all of Romandiola {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{it was anciently called Ficocle}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. One of its bishops was the holy Gerontius, who attended the councils which pope Symmachus convened in the year 501, and who was later distinguished by being a martyr.
134.9. Concerning Ariminium [Rimini] there are some who claim that it was founded by the companions of Hercules, and indeed, it has a very rich history; it is situated in a plain close to the sea, is rich in produce and vegetables, and remarkable for the lovely hills surrounding it. It yields wine which is very wholesome for the stomach. It is rich in olive oil, figs, apples and pomegranates. Within its bounds there is the river Rubicon, now called Pisatellus [Urgone], once a border for the Romans which could not be crossed with fully armed troups, and when Cæsar broke this rule, he caused a civil war by doing so.
134.10. Its governance has been exercised by the family of Malatesta, founders of the splendid temple of the holy Franciscus. Here you can also see a significant triumphal arch, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{remarkable because of its four marble bridges and distinguished by its height and age, whose maker, however, is not known}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, although some think that it is the work of him who paved its road, namely either Flaminius or Cæsar Augustus {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{Octavianus}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. It also has a thermal bath, made of marble. It is surrounded by two rivers, the river Aprusa [Ausa] in the East, and the river Maretia [Marecchia] in the West, once called Ariminium, and the marble bridge crossing it recognises Octavianus Augustus as it builder, as the inscription says.
134.11. Cesena is also located between two rivers, the river Rubicon [Urgone] and Savius [Cesuola], and it touches a hill towering over the city. Higher up, another hill is surrounded by walls where one can see a castle, built by emperor Fredericus the second. It has an interesting fountain, but its library has greater fame, assembled as it is by Malatesta in the monastery of saint Franciscus, {not in 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S{and the Malatesti have for a long time dominated this city}not in 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S}. The country yields abundant amounts of wheat and vegetables, and also wines which were even praised by Plinius. It also produces excellent olive oil and figs in great quantities, as well as flax and hemp, and fruits of all kinds. It is enclosed by lovely and fertile hills. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{The hill that is adjacent to the city has the famous temple dedicated to the holy virgin Mary, with next to it the monastery of the Order of the holy Benedictus}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. In our age, it gave us cardinal Hieronymus Dandinus of the holy church.
134.12. Bertinoro is a city on top of a hill, situated halfway between Cesena and Forli, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{one mile from the road Romana}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, to which the bishops see was transferred from Forlimpopoli in the year 1358 because that city had resisted a papal envoy in remarkable disobedience. This Bertinoro has an excellent castle, recently restaurated by bishop Giovanni Andrea Calegaro when he and his successors settled there, as requested by the pope in Rome.
134.13. Sarsina is located in an even higher area of the Apenine mountain range. It is famous for being the birthplace of the comedy writer Plautus. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Its population, called Sarsinates, was once very powerful, and surrounded by the borders of ancient Umbria}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Nowadays, together with the city of Meldola, it recognises the rule of the family of Aldrobandini. Forli is located {not in 1609/1612/1641S{at the Via Romana {1609/1612L instead{Æmilia}1609/1612L instead; not in 1609/1612/1641S}, {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{where from Rimini you pass via Cesena, and finally reach Bologna, and from there into Lombardia}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} in a plain. The area is fertile for corn and seedlings, and yields excellent anis seed, and also blackberries and guadum [Isatis sativa].
134.14. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{It is enclosed by two rivers, the Montone which reaches the city walls from the West, and the Ronco which is at a distance of one and a half mile from the East}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Under pope Martinus the Fourth it resisted the French, who threatened to occupy the city when on papal authority its walls had been pulled down. Subsequently, it came under the rule of the Ordelassi as an apostolical priest see until in the year of our Lord 1480, when Pinus Ordelassus died, it was handed over by Sixtus the fourth to Hieronymus Rarius. This Rarius, after his sons had been expelled by duke Valentinus, handed over the rule to this duke, but not for long, for he was ousted by the citizens in the year 1504, and it returned to papal rule, to which it is happy to belong to the present day.
134.15. It produced two cardinals, Stephanus Nardinus and Christophorus Numaius, and also Rainerius, the teacher of cardinal Bartolus. Blondus, most famous among historians, was also born here. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Next to these, it is also conspicuous as the fertile mother of other men, famous for their study of martial arts as well as humanities}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Faenza is situated on the same road, ten miles away in the same plain, next to other produce famous for its exellent flax, praised even by Plinius. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{Spartianus writes that Ceionius Commodus, later called Elio Vero, hebbe i suoi antenati da Faenza, se bene Capitolino dice della madre sola}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. It was afflicted in a hard battle with the Goths, was subsequently {not in 1609/1612/1641S{restaurated}not in 1609/1612/1641S} by emperor Fredericus Barbarossa, and was again afflicted harshly by the Britons two hundred years later.
134.16. When it finally came under the rule of the Manfredian vicarii, it was beautified at various places, until it was occupied by duke Valentinus. Asturus Manfredus, a mere boy, was captured and abducted in fetters to Rome, where he was shortly afterwards cast into the river Tiber at midnight and died. And although it later came into the hands of the Venetians, it finally returned to the old jurisdiction of the pope at the time when Julius the second occupied the papal see, and it has remained in that position ever since.
134.17. The city is devoted to trade, and they process their clay to make a kind of pottery which is in great demand in all of Italy and elsewhere under the name majolica. Along the city flows the river Lamone, once called Amone. This city has excellent philosophers and physicians. Six miles from the city, in the direction of the Apennine mountains, there is the noble place of Bersigella, the capital of the Lamone valley, ten miles long and six miles wide and capable of providing from its settlements sixteen-thousand men well versed in war.
134.18. On the other side, towards the North, lies Cotignola, a famous name, because the family Sforza derives from it, a family which for a long time ruled over all of Milan {not in 1609/1612/1641S{and Lombardy}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and this family had numerous offspring of rulers and great men, excellent in matters of war and peace, and memorable for the future as well, because of their ecclesiastical dignities. At a small distance North of Cotignola there are Barberino and Cunio. This is the area where Albericus came from, who reverted to old military standards and iron armour, rather than using boiled leather to strengthen shields and harnesses as was the previous custom, and who expelled the barbarians who occupied and suppressed Italy for a long time.
134.19. Then there is Imola, at a distance of ten miles from Faenza {not in 1609/1612/1641S{along the same military road}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, a city once called Forum Cornelij, and after that graced with the name of Imolia after the castle which was built by a certain Clesa, king of the Lombards. After some changes in fate, it came into the hands of the Alidosii, in their capacity of vicars of the holy See. After Ludovicus, one of this family, had been arrested by the troops of the duke of Milan and abducted to Milan, and after he had been shown to duke Philippus Maria, and after Ludovicus died, this Philippus gave the city to Guido Antonius and Thaddeus Manfredus.
134.20. Subsequently, when Galeatus Sforza, the son of Franciscus, took over the duchy of Milan, he assembled an army, expelled this Manfredus and donated Imola to Hieronymus Riarius as a dowry for his daughter Catharina, who still holds it today, even now that the Riarii have been expelled from Forli and afterwards in this city too the rights of the holy See have been restored. It makes a profit from the same rich soil as the cities just mentioned, {1608/1612I only{It is abundantly watered by the river Vatreno, now called Santerno}1608/1612I only} and gave men to this world famous for their learning, such as Giovanni, usually called Imolius after the city of Imola, and also Alexander Tartagno, both of them famous lawyers.

134.21. The Rhodingian {1608/1612I instead{Rovigo}1608/1612I instead}peninsula.

134.22. The area situated in the Treviso area between Padova and the area of Ferrara is usually called Polesina di Rovigo or the peninsula of Rhodingia, which the ancients called Polynesia as if to say many islands, {not in 1609/1612L{from [in Greek lettering] polu and nesos}not in 1609/1612L}. This is a conglomeration of islands that have been formed by the rivers which surround it. The river Adige, flowing straight from the upper parts of the mountains, and reaching along Trent to Verona, then turns to he East, passes Legnago and at the upper border of the peninsula, flows somewhat under Cavarzere through the Iossonian harbour and ends in the Venetian swamps.
134.23. Similarly, the river Po {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{coming from Piemonte}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} marks the border between Rhodigina {1609/1612/1641S instead{Polesine}1609/1612/1641S instead} and the area of Ferrara, after it has crossed Lombardy and it empties through various branches into the Adriatic sea. In between these two rivers flows the river Castagnaro, called Canale by the local inhabitants. The river originates from the ruins of Adria and ends in the coastal Venetian lake. From the river Adige branches the river Adigetto about six miles South of Legnago. It continues to flow five miles South of Rovigo {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Polinese}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and rejoins its parent river Adige not far from Cavarzere. In between the rivers Adige and Adigetto flow the streams Ceresolus and Reginella, next to other swift currents, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{so that the whole area which is named after the city (as it were the capital) of Rovigo is watered by them.
134.24. This city of Rovigo grew out of the remnants of ancient Adria, founded either by the Greeks Enotrius or Diomedes, or by Gomerus from Gallia, or by Atrius the Etruscan}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, but in any case it is certain that its origin lies in the distant past, and that it ruled the Adriatic sea for a long time, and that this sea was named after this city (as Strabo records). It was once one of the twelve Etruscan colonial settlements, and when these were later won by the Romans, they became a Roman colony; and in the beginning of the Christian era, strengthened by papal and imperial privileges, it admitted in worldly and ecclesiastical matters only its own pastors and city rulers until, defeated by the Venetians under the dogate of Otto Urseolis, and subsequently oppressed by barbarous invasions, it went under in the fury of the sea.
134.25. In those days Paulus was bishop of Adria, and although he wanted to safeguard his people against the violence of the sea, yet he did not contemplate to leave this area, because of its excellent fertility. From pope Ioannes {1609/1612L only{(of the Curiam Bonivici)}1609/1612L only}, he obtained Rovigo just mentioned, and the areas bordering on the Adria. There he first fortified a castle so as to be protected from the invasions of the barbarians and heretics, and it was then called Rose Land after the Greek words {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{[in Greek lettering]}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} Rode and Ge, because roses grow in this area abundantly, a derivation also supported by Ariostus.
134.26. Then, in the year 1160, bishop Florius of Verona obtained it, because of his concern for the safety of his people, attracted as he was by the beauty of the region and the fertility of its soil. He strengthened the castle or bulwark with various buildings, and he received the permission from pope Alexander the third to fortify this castle with a wall and a moat, an enterprise which was finished by his successor Vitalis of Milan who added many bulwarks, four gates, and a double moat surrounding the walls.
134.27. After the bishops lost Rovigo as a result of warfare, it fell first to dukes of Este, then came under the rule of tyrants, until it came into Venetian hands, by which it is protected to this day. When the inhabitants of Adria moved here, the bishops See was transferred as well, and this see is still there, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{now under the rule of the holy bishop Bellini}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. To govern the Rovignians, the Venetians sent one of their noblemen as an envoy with the title of ruler, captain and general inspector of all of Polesina. It is a form of government also imposed by them on other prominent cities.
134.28. Another official from the Venetian nobility with the title of Camerlingo is in charge of the collection of public taxes for the entire Rovigo area. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{This governor is assisted by two doctors, 15 priests, & a judge of the criminal court to which there is no appeal and he has the vice-judge and captain of the militia and the other features of large cities}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. The region is characterised by its many gifts from nature, particularly by such an abundance of produce and corn that it is known as the granary of Venice. It has many pheasants and other delicious fowl, also sturgeons and other fish, and fruits of all kinds. It has brought forth people of extrordinary intellect, as well as men well-versed in literature and martial arts, such as cardinal Roverella and Cælius Rhodiginus, the {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{author of learned books about ancient times}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} Francisco Bruso, {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{poet Laureate, who among other things describes in heroic verse about the origins of Rovigo}1609/1612/1641S only}, {1608/1612I only{in a poem finally printed and dedicated to Girolamo Bonifacio, chief priest of Rovigo, & general vicario of this diocese, and brother of Giovanni, author of the Historia Trivigiana and of a book about laws concerning theft, brother of Bonifacio, son of Fabio, all three doctors in law, & and honoured assessors of the Venetian state,}1608/1612I only}, and also Antonius Riccabones who was a professor {1609/1612/1641S only{in Greek and Latin}1609/1612/1641S only} at Padova university for many years {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{and who wrote learnedly about life after death}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. Then the famous doctor in medicine Ioannes Thomas Minadoa {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{who in his elegant language gives lectures in Padua, and writing with his elegant pen is admired in the farthest prrovinces fro his talents}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Hieronymus Frachetta {1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{who speaks cleverly and writes learnedly has gained a reputation at the court of Rome}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Ioannes Maria Anauze who was a poet and a clever lawyer {1609/1612/1641S only{and many other famous men were born in Rovigo, and in other places of Polesine, among whom}1609/1612/1641S only}, Andrea Nicolius, a famous scholar and assessor who has written a very detailed history of this area, and many others as well, who wrote about matters concerning Rovingo}1609/1612L ends here} and all of Polesine}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S which end here}.

Bibliographical sources

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