Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 124

Text: we present these Latin, Spanish and Italian translations for Bologna first because they show reasonable similarities; then we present the Vicenza text, first the Italian and Latin texts; finally, we present the Spanish translation of Vicenza, which differs from both the Italian and the Latin text. Translation of the text occurring in the 1608/1612I edition was partly done by Minne de Boer (University of Utrecht) partly by Sietske Langbroek (University of Amsterdam) and partly by Jose van der Helm (university of Utrecht) which is gratefully acknowledged here.

124.1. 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S{The area and city of Bologna.

124.2. The region of Bologna extends widely, is partly elevated in hills, and partly levels out into a broad plain with fields, and is of such an incredible fecundity for all things necessary for life, {1609/1612L only{that for that reason in the vernacular of the Italian language it is called fat or also abundant, (and commonly called Bologna la grassa, Bologna the fertile one)}1609/1612L only}. It is watered by numerous rivers, but mostly by the river Reno, which, descending from the Apennine mountains flows towards the West. It is also watered by the river Setta, originating from the same mountain range, which after many devolutions empties into the river Reno. And also by the river Lavino which, springing from the Apennine mountains, crosses the road Via Ćmilia.
124.3. It is beautified by many castles and villages, and generally it is appreciated by its varied beauty, and is distinguished by its beautiful trees, meadows with vines, brooks and springs, the water of which is called Porretta, supposed to be of special merit as being very good for ones health. To illustrate the fecundity of its soil, and its exuberance, I give a supportive statement from Strabo, who writes about the region of Bologna as follows: The merits of these regions is on the one hand proved by the virtue of its inhabitants, on the other hand by the size of its cities, and its great riches, in which it excels above other parts of Italy.
124.4. The city itself, which in ancient times was called Felsina, is not just old, but extends its origin to very remote times, so that even the ancient writers cannot determine it; it will suffice to give one example to prove its most noble age, namely that reliable ancient writers agree that Ocnus, the son of the Etruscan king Tiberius, from this city sent auxiliary soldiers for Ćneas, who waged war against Turnus. Silius Italicus provides clear proof of this when he says: ..and formerly an ally of the Trojans in the Laurentine wars, Oc(n)us his first house, and Bononia at the banks of the little river Reno...
124.5. Bologna itself, before the borders of old Etruria were restricted, according to Plinius, was the metropole and capital of all of Tuscany until it was made into a colony, first by the French, and later by the Romans after fierce wars. This city was also among the first after giving up the rituals of blind heathens, to open its eyes to the heavenly light of the word and the truth, for hardly two centuries had passed since the birth of our saviour when they in utmost piety embraced the religion of Christ.
124.6. It has always been prominent as fertile in bringing forth very learned scholars, and famous for the students of its noble and ancient grammar school, which was founded by Theodosius the Younger. In the time of Azon the lawyer, it counted some ten thousand students and today too, it flourishes with a multitude of teachers and students. Also, it always brought forth very strong men, and long ago it excelled in strength and power. With united troops, it was victorious over Henrius, the king of Sardinia and Corsica, and the son of emperor Frederick the second. It also crushed in another great conflict the armies of Milan, who fought under the viscount Barnaba.
125.6a. For three consecutive years, it waged war against the Venetians and it often had no less than 40,000 soldiers under arms. It also resisted an army which Bartholomćus of Bergamo directed against the Florentines, and at another occasion it fought very courageously against other armies which were sent by various princes to fight the pope. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Often it provided troups in this manner when danger arose to others, both because of its loyalty as also because of its desire to be left in peace}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It witnessed four of its citizens to become a pope namely Honorius II, Lucius II, Gregorius XIII and Innocentius IV, next to numerous cardinals and countless archbishops and bishops.
124.7. The city is densely populated, partly with a number of its own citizens, partly with foreigners of all nationalities who flock here for study. Its location is at the Northern foot of the Apennine mountains, and those mountains protect it against winds on the South side. It enjoys a healthy climate, and lacks nothing whether necessary for life or for pleasure. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Further, here flourish wonderfully the sciences, martial arts, humanities, and by the eulogy mother of students describes it gloriously}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. The history of its inhabitants can be found by the studious reader in Leander, Sigonius, Pompeius Vezanus and others}1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

124.8. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{The area and duchy of Vicenza}1609/1612L}.

124.8a. {1608/1612I only{Caesar Augustus constitutes the tenth region of Italy, and its name is Venetia, according to the general opinion of approved authors named as it is after the Veneti, who settled there with Antenor. The old borders of the land of Venetia according to Strabo and Plinius do not extend further than from the river Tagliamento to the mouth of the Po, thus not including Aquileya in Carinthia. (in right margin): Plinius book. 3.chapter v & xviij. Polybius, Trogus & Livius (end of margin text). More inland, these borders are formed by the river Adige, which they do not cross, with the cities of Adria, Padua, [Quadro d']Altino, Este, Vicenza, Asolo, Oderzo, Belluno, & others. Some enlarge the borders to the river Adda, and say it is surrounded by the Alps, the river Po, the sea and Istria. But the state, and the civil society of the Veneti are discussed by Cassiodorus, some centuries before present day Venice [was founded].
124.8b. It retained its old name of Venice, for neither in the history of the Goths, nor in that of the Lombards does one find the name of Marca, introduced by the Franks, who are by descent and language Germans, where people for the first time, during the reign of Charlemaigne, speak about Marche, and about margraves, that is to say the confines or borders and its protectors. (in right margin:) Paulus Diaconus l.5. Book.12. number 24. Sigib. de Regno Ital.773.Sig.aun.975 (end of margin text). When Otto the Great founded Italy anew, he created a Marca around Ancona, Verona, Forli, Treviso & Genua, where he ornated Treviso with the title (of Marca), maybe because it is located on the main road of the Alps, and is located in an excellent manner because of the rising waters}1608/1612I only}.
124.8c. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{The duchy of Vicenza extends itself from Trent to Verona and Cologna, {1608/1612I only{a colony later incorporated into Vicenza}1608/1612I only} & Este & Padua & Bassano {1608/1612I only{which are all in the jurisdiction of Vicenza}1608/1612I only}. Its circumference is 150 miles along this line {1608/1612I only{which originally extended to Valbona, in the direction of Este, a land which originally was distinguished from that of Padua, since the borders in these regions were fixed by the Romans, who came here in the year 700 [after the foundation] of Rome. The region of Este belonged to that of Vicenza, as is testified by the following inscription: SEX[TVS]. ATILIVS. SERRANVS. EX. SENATI. CONSVLTO. PROCONS. INTER. ATESTINOS ET. VEICETINOS. FINES. TERMINOSQVE. STATVIT. [Sextus Atilius Serranus, consulted by the senate as proconsul, has defined the borders and limits between Ateste and Vicenza].
124.8d. This Sextus Atilius lived at the time of Cicero, & before him there was another one [viz. Sextus Attiliva Serranus, Roman consul in 136 B.C.]. Opposite the river Anzeta, towards Padua, owned by count Odorico Capra, a deep moat extends itself, which separates the regions of Padua, Este and Cologna from that of Vicenza. Then it turns to the west. Near the towers of the borders of Verona, on the old military highway which divides this area into two almost equal parts, it rises to the yoke of the Alps, and then continues to Menadoro, and the bridge across the river Brenta [Ponte Arche in the Dolomites]. It belongs for one half to Vicenza, and then broadens towards Bassano outside the dark valley where Temoli [Thymallus thymallus, graylings] are caught, and trespasses the bridge. (in right margin:) Livius Bk. 37. Paulus Manutius in his first letter of Book 14.(end of margin text).
124.8e. Not far from Carmignano, once a border stronghold, it abandons the river Brenta, & crosses the road from Padua to [Grisignano di] Zocco, & extends to the hills of Montegalda, a stronghold opposite the castles of San Martino & of Arlesega, & passes the river Bacchiglione, crosses another slope, below Mount Lovertino, & returns after crossing the river and Liona towards the slope just mentioned. It can be read [in records] that Charlemaigne defined the borders of Italy by means of rivers, swamps and mountains which used to be undefined, or had been taken into possession [by others] from which it becomes clear that he attributed to Vicenza what it possessed in old times, or attributed some more to it. (in right margin:) Sig. de Regno Ital. an. 775.(end or margin text).
124.9. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{Vicenza can be divided into seven regions, which appear more clearly when they are distinguished into two main areas by means of a mountain ridge which begins in the North, near the sources of the rivers Agno & Leogra, which cut through them, and which are apparent at the mountain ridge surrounding the Vicentine area, along open fields: of which there are four in the East and two in the West, while the seventh extends around the walls of the city called Cultura. {1608/1612I only{It is true that this ridge, after 18 miles, is interrupted by the river Maddalena, through a narrow valley, and then immediately continues between the fields, and after 15 miles runs to the right of Lonigo and Orgiano. I think we should believe that this mountain ridge used to extend itself further, and by the continuous trodding of animals and [the wheels of] carts, and as a result of the rains, & by the river Retrone has been levelled to the ground, but only where you find the mouth of the river, often frequented by armies of various nations and by ravellers}1608/1612I only}.
124.10. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{The first region, called Marosticana, is located between the [rivers] Asti and Brenta, and its most mountainous part is also called Septem Communi [seven communities] because it is subdivided into seven communities or cantons (in the Swiss manner) {1608/1612I only{where German is spoken}1608/1612I only}. Its inhabitants voluntarily obey the city of Vicenza because it provides stocks and food, but further, as defined by a specific privilege, they are free [of taxes] and have their own jurisdiction. They do not have armies, nor commerce or agriculture. They have some valleys with fertile plains suitable for shepherds, and the river Valstagna, through which a military road ascends along the freezing river Oltre {1608/1612I only{a subterranean cave called Waqar where a river with that name has its spring}1608/1612I only}, full of trout, and which also provides power to mills for sawing or grinding wood. Further down below is Castrum Angera, governed by dukes of that name. {1608/1612I only{with the palace of count Jacomo}1608/1612I only}.
124.11. They have their harvest in August, and the area is unfit for vines. They live mainly as shepherds and apply themselves to forestry, for they fell firs and pine trees, and beeches {1608/1612I only{yielding resin and pitch}1608/1612I only}, which they usually roll into the river Brenta to transport them to Padua, or into the river Asti to bring them to Vicenza. {1608/1612I only{In these forests the squirrels jump fom tree to tree, there are ermines and some partridges [black francolins] live here, and chickens with their proud roosters with combs, called mountain chickens which were called Atagones by he Romans and Greeks, & Tetraces [Otis tetrax, little bustards] & Tetraones [Tetrao tetrix, black grouse]. For the rest, you find Alpine mountain slopes here}1608/1612I only}. The Maristocan fields, which extend from the foot of the Alps to the military road just mentioned [from Genua via Cerona to Aquileia, built by Postimius Albinus in 132 B.C.], and which include Castelfranco and ancient Postumia beyond the river Brenta {1608/1612I only{which later, in Friuli is called Alta [the High one], & which leads directly to Istria, Dalmatia, & Hungary}1608/1612I only} {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{enjoy a good soil and climate, and receive shade from green trees. They are beautified by olives and vineyards, are rich in saffron crocuses and have plenty of small towns and villages.
124.12. Whoever descends to the plains will see near the river Brenta an enormous trench which was initiated by Giovanni Galeatius, the duke of Milan, and which cost two hundred thousand florins; ten thousand local inhabitants worked on it, as well as five hundred pair of oxen. He intended to make the trench twelve miles long and to guide the river Brenta through it, fortifying the banks of the trench with lime and granite to quays, and to guide it through the Vicenza regions into the rivers Tesino and Bacchiglione. {1608/1612I only{Subsequently, to fortify the dike with lumber on the bottom of the river Bacchiglione, & to guide this water along its banks to the swamps of Lozzo, so that its clear waters would not flow to Padua nor to Venice. Then follow the fertile lands of Marostica, with its bulwark in the hills, a very fertile valley, yielding excellent red and black cherries, and which has the mountain brook Lunghella. Then there are other large villages, such as Masone, Breganze with its castle, & Lonedo with its splendid palace of the dukes Alessandro & Hieronimo Godi, ruling this area, of splendid Greek and Roman architecture. Its mountains have been equalised and its valleys filled, and it has marble stairs, loggias, a hall, appartements with rooms, paintings, friezes made by expert hands, & all splendidly ornated. In its yards and gardens we find fountains, the water of which is preserved in basins of white marble, enriched with statues, with various large and small fountains, a joy to behold. Then the vegetable garden descends to the river Asti, which serves as a fish pond. And to honour such an excellent mansion, to lead a chivalrous life, lords and ladies receive their guests with magnificent courtesy. The valley too abounds with all kinds of corn, fruits and pastures and lawns, irrigated by the rivers Brenta, Asti, Tesino, Terlago, Longhella, & Lavagna as also happens with the river Nile, fertilising the fields and meadows, especially near Luna with its two parks, & in Soelle, one belonging to Nicolo, the other to Lelio & Scipione Conti chieregatti [?]; grass is mown three times per season and the meadows are left for the cattle. Thus, the countryside is planted with trees in squares, with a double row of vines, and with silk trees for the silk worms, and like so many other regions seems to be a place of delight, where in the middle the [hill of] Roncaglia rises up, multiplying whatever is sown in incredible abundance. May God guard protect you, oh soil, refuge in the day of my infancy}1608/1612I only}.
124.13. {1608/1612 & 1609/1612L{The second region is Piemonte, defined in the East by the river Asti which flows around it, originating in a terrifying valley, and watering the feet of the closest mountains, it leaves the other mountains alone. {1608/1612I only{& first that of Carre, on the top of which there is the castle of the counts of Capra (also called Carradij because of their jurisdiction) & of Sarcedo, & of Montecchio with their castle: coming closer, this river [Asti] branches into two; the left branch empties into the river Tesina, & and the right one brings wood into the city. A line, drawn over the ridge just mentioned divides it in the west part, where tasty wine grows, in Magrč, Ignago, Malo, St. Lorenzo, Gambugian with its castle, & Monteviale, via well known Gagate, and towards Meriggio; the other part of the line is across the mountain and is cultivated. As regards the pass between the rivers Astico & Posna, it is clear that the Posna gradually mixes with the Astico and other waters containing Marsoni [frogs] trouts and other fish. And this happens closely above Velo with its castle, rightwards in the valley of Assa}1608/1612I only}. In this area there are stone quarries and mines with splendid marble in the valley of the river Asso, and with white marble near Pioverna, which seems to have been used to build the gorgeous palaces in the city of Vicenza. This is where the mountain called Summanus raises its head, craggy and with a steep entrance, on the top of which there is a plain with pastures, but surrounded by threatening ridges, in the middle of which in ancient times the pagan god Summanus was being adored. Varro describes this Summanus as one of the Sabine gods whose sanctuary, now changed into that of the Holy Virgin Mary, is frequented in great devotion.
124.15. Herbalists flock to these regions and collect everything, mostly at Theriaca that can function as an antidote. In the same mountains, you find Torri and Trecate, where veins of gold are even found in the sand, and where there are also mines yielding silver, lead, brimstone, iron, vitriol and quicksilver. In Trecate one can find the white kind of chalk which removes stains from cloth and which as the only substance in Europe is suitable to provide a white layer of plaster to the earthenware which is called majolica.
{1608/1612I only{The flat part is very fertile with all kinds of produce, and is easy for travelling, without trees, but with rows of vines, fields, meadows, and flocks of sheep, & richly watered, particularly by the river Bacchiglione, named by Plinius the small Medoaco. It originates at Vivaro with its castle, its fountains, mills, river lobsters and other fish, marsoni, trouts, lampreys, & other small fish; Caldogno is also known for its castle, for the counts who bear that name, its fair buildings, & its fish ponds. From there comes water which absorbs whatever it meets on its way, after six miles reaching the city, and together with the Rerone is navigable until it reaches the sea together with the other river. The Rerone comes from the surrounding hills of Castelgomberto, at Eliano {also] called Ereteno, praised for its eels}1608/1612I only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{Of the eleven vicariates, each of which receives one from the city council of Vicenza one of its noblemen to deal out justice, Schio, which contains three vicariates, has eleven {1608/1612I instead{15}1608/1612I instead} mansions or villages, {1608/1612I only{where every year the senate of Vicenza grants to all nobility and others the right to speak. Here is a fence around the park belonging to noble ministers, and the mountain Novegno, which revives the grass at night, when the day is over. Its inhabitants derive their fame from their industry in holding cattle. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{whereas Thiene has twenty-one mansions}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L}, {1608/1612I only{where the one finds the palace of count Francesco Porto, beautifully ornated with yards and gardens, and with fruits trees, and evergreens, figures of animals, labyrinths, orchards, and fish ponds, favourites of foreign visitors}1608/1612I only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{And the region of Malum has six cities}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L} {1608/1612I only{whose wine is praised in summer, resembling as it does in colour and fragrance of ripe Marasca}1608/1612I only}.
124.16. The third region is called Pelestrina {1608/1612I only{which splits towards Borea from the military road mentioned}1608/1612I only} because it contains the course and mouth of the river Tesino {1608/1612I only{which accommodates the river Astico above Lisiera, where you find the well known and well built palace of count Leonardo Valmarana; & [the rivers] Tribolo & la Tergola; the road of Padua no longer retains its fame when at the towers of Bacchiglione it splits}1608/1612I only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{Its vicariate is Camisanum, which contains 38 villages or mansions}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L}, {1608/1612I only{which has the best wines of the region. They were there while the Scaligeri were in power, as well as the dukes of Milan, the counts of Tieni who possess most of it, with their castle of Rampazo, when Uguccione, cardinal of the holy church, & Hettore Vicerč of Puglia, whose epitaph has been engraved in the golden chapel of the holy crown, and with Quintus, resulting in count Giulio Tiene, marquis of Scandiano, being very rich because of the great palace of the Dorian order, provided with loggias, paintings and ornaments, situated between the two large rivers called the Tergola and the Tesina}1608/1612I only}.
{1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{The fourth region, because it is watered by a branch of the river Bacchiglione, is called Riviera {1609/1612L only{or Ora Ripć [river bank]}1609/1612L only}, very attractive because of the fertile fields surrounding it.}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L}{1608/1612I only{Outside the cultivated area, on the mountain ridge extending along the river Bacchiglione and its tributary, the line has to be drawn regarding rain in the West. This ridge extends in length to the park of count Odorico Capra, while here the valley of Fimon extends itself with its lake and with the bog of Fontega, mixing their waters in the river Debeta. At the opening of the valley there appears to be an edge, or an indentation from mountain to mountain, possible with the purpose of stopping the waters from reaching the city of Pesce. Alternatively, to fend off attacks from enemies who could present themselves from above, while there are also two towers to be seen on the road to Tormeno. A little further, there is the city of Deba with its mills and bridges to cross the river Bacchiglione. Near Coldiruga it branches out. The larger canal proceeds to the curve of Padua, whereas the smaller branch, called Fiume [river] branches out further at its mouth, 16 feet below. This may have been caused by old naval services, due to excavating rain showers. But who caused this, or whether it is just due to protracted time, is something unknown. This stream leads to the river Luguare, where there are stone quarries, and a bridge, and further on, on both banks, two chalk bulwarks, and moats, dug deeply, and enormous channels, dividing the water at this spot. This work has been achieved by the duke of Melano to guide the rivers Bacchiglione and Brenta, as we have related, against the Paduans. Since the year 1143, these have attempted to largely appropriate this region (a cause for many wars) even leaving behind connecting bridges beneath the water line. On the other side one finds the city of Costoze, popular with visitors because of Covalo (a famous cave there), often painted by the famous artist Tussino. In which cave one finds stone statues. The cave is very high and barren, and because of its darkness one needs torches. At its entrance, it broadens into a square, where human touch and traces of nails have made impressions in the course of many hundreds of years. In the cave itself, ornated and supported by pillars, there is stony matter which is frozen and sharp, seeping out from the rock, because the air is capable of turning anything into stone here. One can walk into various directions, following the veins, leading to various deep gashes, opened up into squares, showing tiles and other workmanship. The cave ends in dark fountains containing creatures resembling marine animals. This water is presumed to pierce through these straits and below the river Brendano it reappears as a brook. In this cave, which has the reputation of being invincible, the people usually hide themselves during war times. It extends in an oval form at a width of two thirds of a mile, and in length of one mile; there are also other, smaller caves, connected to the abode and park of the knight of Camillo Trento, a worthy orator, allowing fresh air in the cavities, which can be closed off at will, when one can hardly bear the summer heat (notably when the sun is in Leo). The nobles guide this fresh wind through pipes to their houses at will, which causes wine almost to freeze. Days of merriment have contributed to these rural pleasures because of those lovely scratches and loggias called Colide, Parnasus, Helicon and Hippocrene, referring to the Muse of the poets. Not far from there the bridge with the mills connects the fertile land between two large rivers, in Latin called Interamnia, & in Greek Mesopotamia, with the river Guizzole, near the road to Padua, ornated with a temple of ancinet architecture, after the design of Alfonso Ragona, a nobleman of liberal arts. Next, along the slopes of the rocks of St. Cassano, abide birds of prey, a location where excellent medical herbs are grown; then here is Lusignano with its bridge, and Castagnaro, & Nanto with its mills, bridges and stone quarries yielding stone for Padua, and on top of the hill two towers to prevent entrance of the enemy; the vines produce wine which reminds one of the Oligophoros of Hippocrates. The sixth bridge with mills is that of Massano [Mossano], which has abodes for the city dwellers in stone quarries; and Covalo, where a thousand of those people had taken refuge, and where suffocated in smoke by the Germans. Here wholesome hot springs are found, to heal the sick, who were received there and are healed by our Pigafetti family; & there is also Montrugio, formerly their vineyard, and an estate full of stones, where in relief grains of all sorts of corn can be seen. So far I have not mentioned the coast full of stones about which Plinius says that they do not resist the fogs and winds of the sea; then follows the last of the bridges which are of equal distance from each other, with rocks and with villages at the foot of the hills. There is Barbarano with its strong castle, a vicariate with 16 villages, a general market place, where it seems that nutricious nature has ennobled this air and soil with all excellent properties required to be of use and amusement for human life, as also in the dependent villages of Nanto, Massano, Villaga, Tovara, & Belvedere, with in the distance the hill on top of which the noble Barbarani have their dwelling, surrounded by a park. Proceeding from here, one finds the curve of a river, where it swerves to the left, and waters the fertile valley of Lovertino alongside mount Bettone, a hill which is separate from the others, meandering for perhaps three miles, with the village belonging to it at the inside of the slope, belonging to and under the jurisdiction of the Pigafetti family, who obtained it from the Vicentian republic the the year 1200 in the form of a loan. Its present ruler is countess Euriema Pigafetta, owning property commensurate with her position; and finally this river flows along the Vň, or rather Vadi, to Este, & Monfelice. Opposite the turning of the river towards the west, mountains extend themselves. On their top originates the brook Liona, piercing dark caves, and reappearing between the fields, where it is navigable, together with the river Sirone. Between these two rivers one finds Lagugiaro near the bridge spanning these rivers. Near the truncated mountains, there is Organio, a vicarate with a castle with 10 villages, all of them very fertile with corn, which is preferred because it yellows quicker than other sorts of corn. The last village is Poiana, where the counts of Hieronimo & Nicolo ornate a palace which rises above the surrounding plains with splendid architecture, and of which the marble staircases rise up in the form of loggias. Further, the hall contains apartments with rooms conforming with this wonderful building which, ornated with paintings and plaster made by cunning hands, and with costly furniture, fish ponds and vegetable gardens, receives the women and knights and everyone who goes there as if it were the land of Cockaigne}1608/1612I only}. {1609/1612L only{In the area one finds the populated and considerable castle called Custodia, called as is because formerly convicts where put into custody in large stone quarries, used for obtaining stone for building purposes. One finds deep and wide tunnels, from which stone is obtained which resembles that of Tiburtia, exemplified by a description of Johannes Georgius Trissinus in Leander.
124.17. This cave extends wonderfully far, and is about three miles in circumference and has an oval form. It has been dug over a long period of time by excavating stones which seem to have been used for the old buildings of Padua and Vicenza. Gigantic pillars of the same kind of stone have been left there to support the roof of the mountain, mostly at a distance from each other of twelve Pertica [about 35 meters].
124.18. The ceiling of the cave has shining white stalactites consisting of white moisture that has petrified into stony matter. Fresh tracks of carts can be seen, although in the memory of the people here a cart has never been inside. At the exit there is a lake of which the water is so clear that the deepest bottom can be observed as is there is nothing in between, and no kind of animal inhabits it, except bats. The inhabitants of the area are used to retreat into this cave in times of war, since it is considered invincible. There are also some smaller caves here. The knight Camillus Trenti lived in a house adjacent to such a cave, and his rooms are very cold as a result of this proximity, for even at the height of summer it is freezing cold there, so cold that they can chill their wine as if they have ice at hand}1609/1612L only}.
124.19. The fifth region extends over a mountain range and is in the North confined by a military road and the outer border of the Vicentine region. Here is the location of the exemplary city of Lonigo, after ancients laws a holding of Vicenza, famous for the quality and abundance of its asparagus, its very white bread and the excellence of its wine, {1608/1612I only{growing on a hill opposite to it}1608/1612I only}, praised by Sabellicus {1608/1612I only{similar to Pucinum wine}1608/1612I only} and preferred to all others by Livia Augusta. {1608/1612I only{Then on the side you find Seregno, & Melide with its palace, & the park of the counts of Trissino, on the hill along he river Brenno}1608/1612I only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{Its vicariate contains ten mansions and on a hill it has a veritable castle on the road leading to the mountains {1608/1612I has instead{under the fountains of Covalo, setting mills into motion}1608/1612I instead}.
124.20. {1609/1612L & 1608/1612I{The sixth region, densely populated and thriving with commerce, has in the East a mountain ridge, and in the South a military road. Excepting another valley with just fields, it can be divided into two valleys, named Chiampo and Agno. The first valley has Asigliano as its metropolis, a vicariate with a stronghold and seven mansions. Higher up the valley, to the left, Ciampo is watered by the river Ciampo giving its name to a village there with stone quarries with the kind of red marble used in building the cathedral and palace of Vicenza. In its vicinity one can see rocks showing fossilized fishes with scales and bones. {1608/1612I only{A similar prank of nature can also be seen in the German area of Mansfeld}1608/1612I only}. Not far from there you find the village called San Giovanni with orchards of pear trees called garsinioles, and with quarries of black stone, of which nature has sculpted pentangular columns with a length of 20 feet and a width of two feet. At the left bank there is the fortification of Montebello including the vicariates of six mansions.
124.21. The valley called Agno is subdivided into a higher and a lower part, and is very fertile and lovely. It has fourteen Valdagnian vicariates with a castle and some small cities. {1608/1612I only{In this area people mine marble resembling the marble of Pari, and also that of Carrara, and also red and mixed marble; above it to the left is Recoaro with its mines of silver, vitriol, sulphur, & marchesita, and stone slabs suitable for making mill stones, used in all surrounding areas}1608/1612I only}. There are Corneto and Trissino with a castle where the fields consist of watered meadows and fertile sunny hills. Lower down there is a forest where the wines grow which pope Paul the third considers to be exquisite {1608/1612I only{which the renowned Georgio Trissino presented every year when tasting all the wines of Rome}1608/1612I only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{The right bank is protected by the castle of Greater Montecchi, a vicariate of six mansions located opposite Montebello and both of them protect the access to the roads {1608/1612I only{particularly in the valley of the signori, & of the counts, and of Recoaro, through the valleys of Focaccia}1608/1612I only} {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{leading towards Germany}1608/1612I}, with diligence, thus providing safety}1609/1612L}.
124.22. {1609/1612L only{The seventh region is Cultura, which extends itself around the city with highly cultivated fields}1609/1612L only}. {1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{Generally speaking, the county of Vicenza is prominent because of its natural qualities, and in its esteem of human industry it is second to no other area. It generates erudite men, and noblemen distinguished by their way of life, it has leaders in war, excellent soldiers, {not in 1608/1612I{housewives of great honesty}not in 1608/1612I}, tradesmen, farmers and shepherds. It has a healthy and temperate climate, situated as it is on the 45th degree or latitude or degrees of elevation. It provides suitable access for whoever desires to travel to Gallia, Germania or Pannonia {1608/1612I instead{Schlavonia}1608/1612I instead}.
124.23. It is located at a distance of forty miles from the sea, there are no tempestuous winds, and it is watered by various springs and rivers, and it has an adequate supply of fish, also for connoisseurs. The river is not a very large one, but it is deep and navigable along its full length. It is distinguished by the neighbouring Alps with evergreen trees useful for obtaining pitch and raisin, and no harmful animals are to be feared here. All that is necessary for man's life can be found here, and nowhere in all of Italy of better quality.
124.24. For the maintenance of man serves the harvest of corn and other agricultural produce, fruits from its trees, wine in various colours, taste and age, and abounds with silk, cambric, cloth, wool, hemp, olive oil, saffron, honey, fragrances, dainties from gardens, bulls, cattle for drawing, herds of sheep and goats, larger cattle, and finally whatever is needed for a good life, and excellent fruits. Yearly its exports great quantities of veal and other sorts of meat, roasted venison, chickens and hatchlings, some 10,000 jars or bottles of wine, some 10,000 animals loaded with fruits of all kinds, and great quantities of silk, course or woven, worth half a million or 500,000 pieces of gold. Agriculture is conducted by 150,000 farmers spread over 250 mansions or villages, of which about 50 have been fortified with towers, castles or strongholds.
124.25. Measured in lengths of 10 feet, the Vicentine land measures 2,000,058,085, of which a single measure is almost a Roman iugerum [2500 square meters]. The mountainous alpine regions yield firewood and building materials, and even marble and metals, and are very suitable for hunting and fowling. Its people are mostly strong, rough and warlike, so much that at the most recent count of those between 18 and 40 selected for the army, there were no less than 16,000 of them. Adding to these the 3,000 garrison soldiers and bombardiers, they have an army of 20,000 excellent soldiers, ready and equipped for battle on land or sea at the command of their prince}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L end here}.

Now follows the relatively short Vicenza text from the 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition.

124.26. {1609/1612/1641S only{VICENZA

124.27. Vicenza is a very noble and ancient city, situated, as Plinius and Prolemćus have written, among the old Venetians. Trogus Pompeius writes that they derive from the Gauls, at the time that Verona, Milan and other cities in Lombardy were founded. Leandro Alberto is of a different opinion, and says that the Etruscans, who were very powerful at the time, founded it, and that the Gauls afterwards took it over from the Etruscans. Some think that its ancient name was Vicetia, lacking one letter, referring to the following [inscription]:.
124.28. SEXTVS ATILLIVS SERRANVS, proconsul of the senate has advised that this is the border and limit between the Atestini and the Veicetini. But the majority of authors calls it Vicentia, located at the foot of a hill called Vicenza, which area is divided into two parts by two rivers, one being called Baccilione, anciently named Medoacus the lesser, and the other called Rherone. These are only small rivers, coming from one source, and well provided with fish. There are no fortifications here, and therefore there has been much disagreement as to who rules this area.
124.29. It has good houses and beautiful palaces, among which there is the city hall, the monastery of St. Corona, of St. Domingo where in great devotion a thorn of the crown of thorns of our Lord is guarded, which was donated by Louis, King of France, to Bartolomeus Vicentinus, bishop of Vicenza in the Order of St. Domingo. This land is well provided with all things necessary, such as corn, good wine, very delicious fruits, a great abundance of mulberry trees feeding silk worms which grow here in great numbers to the great profit of the inhabitants. They also find much venison in the mountains; it is a place with fish, hot springs, and wood in abundance. It is a very fertile area, inhabited by very good people.
124.30. After the Romans expelled the Gauls from Italy, they have always been very attached to the Christian faith, until the time of Attila, who sacked the place. He was later succeeded by the Goths and the Lombards, as claimed by Paulus Diaconus, and were later brought into confusion by Charles the Great, and their king Desiderius was taken captive, and the city resigned itself to be in the power of the kings of Italy until the time of emperor Frederic the Second, who betrayed and sacked it in the year 1236. Then it became subject to various rulers, such as the Scaligers and the people from Padua, until at last, exhausted by all these changes, they were finally ruled by the Venetians.
124.31. Vicenza has not failed to bring forth very eminent people in all times, such as Aulo Cecinna, a captain under Vitellius and consul of Rome, as claimed by Cornelius Tacitus, then Fortunatus and Felix Martyr who flourished in Aquileya in the time of Maximilianus. Also Palemon, a native of Vicenza, a man of great learning, as Eusebius writes in his Chronicle. Whoever wants more details should read Baptista Paiarino, who has written six books about the memorable things of this city}1609/1612/1641S only which ends here}.

Bibliographical sources

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