Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 111

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB) and 1580G editions:

111.1. {1570L(AC){NORTGOIA, or the County Palatine of BAYERN.

111.2. The other part of Bayern which is on the other side [of the] Danube and extends beyond the Bohemian woods is called in our time (and has been called for a long time) Nortgoia. It has Nurnberg as its chief city, from which, as some people think, it took its name. And although this Nurnberg is not an ancient city, yet its castle, situated on top of a hill, which was once called castle of Noricum is very ancient. This region has many towns, monasteries and villages, especially Amberg, {1579L(A){which in the year of Christ 1300 was surrounded by a wall.
111.3. Then Averbach}1579L(A)}, Sulzbach, the monastery Castell (where in old times the princes of Nortgoia held their court), Eger, Bayreuth, Eichstätt, Nabburg, {1579L(A)Neustadt Ruwenkelm, Kemnath, Kreußen, Grävenwerdt, Eschenbach, Weiden, Pernau, Pleystein, Hersbruck, Rörnbach, Neumarkt, Thursenruth, Elbogen, Cham, Schönsee, Küssenberg, Stauf}1579L(A)} &c. For the most part these belong to the Palatine princes. For Ludovicus, the emperor and duke of Bayern in the year of Christ 1339 made such a division that of the whole province of Bayern, the province of Nortgoia should be subjected to the Palatine princes, except only certain towns which should belong to the emperor, and also many that used to belong to the crown of the empire have in former times been loaned to the princes of Bayern.
111.4. In this province, between Bamberg and Nurnberg, in the East, at the town of Eger, there is a high mountain called Fichtelberg from which four rivers issue, [namely the] Main, Naab, Saale and Eger. This mountain is in circumference about six miles. It produces various kinds of metal. It [also] yields the best [kind] of blue colour dye, which they commonly call azure. In the top of the mountain they also find tin, and many caves from which metals have been dug in former times. In general, the whole province everywhere teems with mines, especially of iron, by which the Nortgoians yearly make a great profit.
111.5. {1579L(A){Otherwise, the soil is hard and rough, although in some places it brings forth a good quantity of grain, and is excellent pasture ground. This province of Nortgoia contains one of the four duchies or landgravies which a long time ago were established by the emperors, namely {1580G only{the duchy of}1580G only} Lichtenberg which takes its name from the castle of Lichtenberg, although the princes of that jurisdiction keep their court in the town of Pfreimbd, and sometimes in Grünsfeld, {not in 1580G{the location of which you may see on the map}not in 1580G}.
111.6. The duke who now possesses this place is called Georg, if I am not deceived, descended from his forebears Albert and Frederick. This duchy has not grown to such a size as the other three, which in the course of time have expanded much, both in possessions and command, especially the landgravy or duchy of Hessen}1579L(A)}. So far for Sebastian Münster. See also Pius the second. About the beginnings of the County Palatine of this province read Francis Irenicus. Conrad Celtes the poet has most excellently described Nurnberg, the chief city of this province. Gasper Bruschius {not in 1580G{of Eger}not in 1580G} has described Fichtelberg {1573L(B), not in 1580G{(a mountain plentifully bearing pine trees)}1573L(B), not in 1580G} in a specific treatise}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L end here}.
{1579L(AB){Wirtenberg will be described on the next page, which it occupies by itself}1579L(AB) & 1580G which end here}.
[Accordingly, the following text is not contained in the 1579L(AB) and the 1580G edition].

111.7. {1570L(AC){The dukedom of WIRTENBERG.

111.8. The region of the dukedom of Wirtenberg is shaped somewhat like a circle, and comprises many towns and cities, and also many castles, monasteries, mansions and an infinite number of villages, next to three imperial cities, namely Eßlingen, Weil and Reutlingen, which have their own jurisdictions under the guardianship of their rulers. The most prominent cities of this dukedom are Tübingen, which has an academy, and Stuttgart, the seat of their lord. This is discussed in Münster and others. {1573L(AB){But let us hear what Jacobus Spiegelius has written about this region. He writes in Scoli which is contained in Bartholini's Austriades: The region of Wirtenberg was from its beginnings under the rule of the duchy, and it has among its cities three important ones, next to prince's castles: The first is Urach, the second Beutelsbach and the third is the kingdom of Güglingen. Later these were merged into two, namely Stuttgart and Urach. In our time it has been reformed into one province ruled by the emperor, as Maximilianus says. Eberhard Barbatus created a duchy from the dukedom, and dignified its nobility with titles}1573L(AB) only}. The main river of this region, the Neckar, as well as other rivers, have been described beautifully by Franciscus Irenus in his Book 8, Chapter 34. The area at the river Neckar is fertile in generous wine, which hence is called Neccarense}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F and 1581F editions:

111.9. {1571/1573D{Nordgau or Bavarian Pfalz.

111.10. Nordgau is the name of the part of Bavaria which extends towards the Bohemian forests on the other side of the Danube. The capital here is Nurnberg from which (as some think) this country derives its name. And although Nurnberg is not a very ancient city, yet the castle which lies on a mountain top there, once called Castrum Noricum, is very ancient.
111.11. In this land there are many other cities, castles, monasteries, and villages, such as Amberg, Sulzbach, Averbach, the monastery Castell where the princes of Nordgau used to keep court; then Eger, Neustadt, Bayreuth, Eichstätt, Nabburg etc. which mostly belong to Pfaltz. In the area between the cities of Bamberg and Eger lies a mountain called Fichtelberg, which is six miles in circumference. Here they dig all kinds of metal, particularly iron, which serves all of Nordgau. They also find much azure dye here. On top of this mountain there is a lake. From this mountain run four rivers towards the four directions of the world, that is, the Main to the West, the Eger to the East, the Saale to the North and the Naab to the South.
111.12. You also see on this map the river Regnitz, and another one called Altmühl. Emperor Carolus in the year 793 intended to connect these two waters by digging [a canal] so that ships might go from the Danube into the Rhine. He had several thousands of men work on it, but since it rained a lot at that time, and since the soil around there is very sandy, whatever they dug in the day time would collapse at night. So he gave up this idea. At Weißenburg you can still see remnants of this canal [Baedeker calls it Fossa Carolina, still extant today]. So far Münster}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F end here}. {1581F only{This land comprises four landgravies, namely that of Lichtenberg which took its name from a fortress so named, where they sometimes still keep court, which is also done in a village called Pfreimbt, and also sometimes in Grünsfeld, which city can also be seen on this map}1581F ends here}.

111.13. {1571/1573D{The duchy of Wirtenberg.

111.14. This was once a dukedom, and it was later made into a duchy. This land is almost round in shape. It has a very fertile soil, and is well covered with cities and villages, among which the following three, namely Eßlingen, Weil and Reutlingen are free cities. Further there are Stuttgart, the main city where the duke keeps court. Around this city there are so many vineyards that they have a saying that if you would press all the grapes around Stuttgart, the city would drown in them. This is to say that, since the city lies in a valley, and since the mountains above it yield so much wine, if you would allow the ripe grapes to release their moisture, because of this flood, and given the valley in the land, the city would be inundated by the wine.
111.15. Close by is Tübingen, where there is a university, founded by duke Eberhart in the year 1477. Then Wildbad and Zell, with hot springs. Then Göppingen, where there is an acid spring {1572/1574F only{in German called Saurbrun [acid spring]}1572/1574F only}, beneficial for many diseases. Then Rottenburg, Heilbrunn etc. and the castle of Wirtenberg from which the land derives its name. It is situated on the Neckar, which river traverses the area. It empties into the Rhine at Heidelberg. Along this Neckar there grows the most costly wine, called Neckar-wine}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F end here}.

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