Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 100

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S edition).

100.1. {1570L(AC){FRANKENLAND.

100.2. FRANKENLAND is partly flat and partly mountainous. The mountains themselves are not very steep, nor the plains very fruitful, sandy as they are. In many places the hills, covered with vines, yield tasteful wine, especially around Herbipolis, vulgarly Würzburg. There is plenty of wood and much hunting. The country is subject to many governors, yet they call the bishop of Würtzburg also duke of Frankenland. The bishops of Mainz and of Bamberg have many places here. And the count Palatine enjoys a great part of it. Here the marquises Orantes are located. And here are also many imperial cities {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{belonging the Franks}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}.
100.3. As regards Nürnberg, it is doubtful whether it belongs to Frankenland or to Bavaria. By its name, Boiaria (1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E instead{Bavaria}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E instead} should seem to claim it. For Nürnberg means as much as Mons Noricus, {1606E only{The Noric Hill,}1606E only} from which it appears that there was also the city of the Norici. And after the Norici came the Boiari {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E instead{Bavarians}1580/1589, 1602G & 1606E only}. And now, that portion of the country that lies between the Danube and Nürnberg is called Noricum {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{Bavaria}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}. Whatever the case may be, the city is in the diocese of Bamberg, which belongs to Frankenland. The inhabitants of Nürnberg will neither be considered as Bavarians nor as Franks, but as a third nation differing from both. It is a stately city, adorned with churches, castles and houses, most sumptuously built. It lies on the river Pegnitz in a barren and sandy place, which increases the peoples zeal, for they are all either craftsmen or merchants, so that they are exceedingly rich and have a great reputation in Germany. It is a place most fit for the emperor's court, a free city and located almost in the middle of Germany.
100.4. Between Bamberg and Nürnberg lies Forchheim, a town famous for its snow-white bread. The inhabitants suppose that Pilatus was born here. So far for Pius II {1606E has instead{Æneas Sylvius}1606E} in his description of Europe. Read also {1573L(A){Johannes Aubanus}1573L(A)}, Herman Comes Nuenarius, {not in 1606E{Münster, Rithaymer, Hunibaldus}not in 1606E}, Trithemius the abbot and Johannes Aventinus, who thinks that the main city of Würzburg there was formerly called Pœonia.


100.6. About this bishopric Sebastian Münster in his Cosmography writes like this. Charlemaigne erected a third bishopric in the middle of Saxony, now Westfalen, in Myningrode, a place which later, with regard to the famous monastery there founded, was called Münster, and there he ordained as bishop a certain Ludgerus, born in Friesland. His successor Hermannus consacrated the monastery and church on the other side of the water to the honour of the blessed virgin Mary. This monastery in a short time increased so mightily and became so famous that it gave its name both to the city and the bishopric of Münster, so that it abandoned its old name Mingardevordens and began calling itself city and church of Münster, which name persists to the present day. So far {not in 1571L{Cranzius}not in 1571L} from Münster. Concerning this bishopric, and that of Osnabrück, read Saxony by Albertus Crantzius {1573L(A){and Hamelman's commentaries on Westfalen}1573L(A)}.
100.7. This city in the year 1533 suffered great damage from the anabaptists who, expelling its citizens, took it for themselves. And choosing a king from the rabble, they held it against the archbishop of Cologne and the duke of Cleve who besieged it with a strong army {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{for almost a year}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. But the bishop at length obtaining the upper hand, punished both of them as well as their king, as they deserved}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Text, vernacular version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574F, 1581 French, 1587 French and 1598 French editions:

100.8. {1571/1573D{Frankenland {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead{Franconie}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead}.

100.9. Frankenland is situated in the middle of Germany and its soil is not as fertile as it is elsewhere. It is mountainous and full of woods, with much venison. And although the soil is somewhat sandy, yet it yields much wine which is transported to other places. Kalissi [liquorice] wood grows {not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{around Bamberg}not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F} in such quantities that it is carted off to elsewhere. Nowhere do the cabbages, turnips or onions grow to such a size as they do here, as Villanovanus reports. It is traversed by the river Main, along which you find beautiful cities such as Würzburg, (also called Pœonia, as Aventinus writes) of which the bishop is also duke of Frankenland (although this land has many rulers), for the bishoprics of Mainz and Bamberg occupy a large part of it, and also paltsgraves, and then there are also many free cities. Bamberg is also a bishopric.
100.10. Between Bamberg and Nürnberg you find Forchhaim. This city takes the prize for its snow white bread. The inhabitants say that Pilatus was born here. About Nürnberg it is uncertain whether it lies in Frankenland or in Bavaria. The inhabitants themselves do not want to belong to either one, but to be a third nation on their own. However, according to the name it has, you would think that it should belong to Nortgau, as if the city was called Nortgauburg. Yet it belongs to the bishopric of Bamberg, which lies in Frankenland. Nürnberg is a noble city, well built and full of people. Here is much trade by merchants, and all sorts of handicraft, bringing the inhabitants riches in spite of living on a barren and sandy soil.

100.11. Westfalen {1581F, 1587F & 1598F have instead{the bishopric of Münster}1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead}.

100.12. {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{Westfalen is not fully depicted on this map, but only the bishopric of Münster and Osnabrück}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. This bishopric of Münster according to Albertus Crantzius had its origin as follows. Charles the Great founded in the middle of the land of the Saxons (now called Westfalen) a monastery or Münster (as it is pronounced in some places) at a place then called Myningrode. But the old name disappeared and it was henceforth called Münster. This Münster he later appointed as a bishopric and its first bishop was a Frisian called Ludger. After him came Herman, who consacrated Münster and its church [built] over the water under the name of the Holy Virgin. Münster grew in the course of time with houses all around, so that it became a city and retained its name Münster (as was also the case for the monastery and the bishopric), as we can still see.
100.13. This city in the year 1533 suffered great damage from the Anabaptists who occupied it, expelled its citizens, and appointed someone from their people as a king there. The bishop, with the help of the duke of Cleve besieged it and after having continued this siege for about a year, recaptured it from the Anabaptists}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}.

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